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Improvizacija - integralni del ustvarjalnega učenja in poučevanja klavirja : doktorska disertacija
Pucihar, Ilonka (Author), Rotar Pance, Branka (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Osrednji cilj doktorske disertacije je raziskati, utemeljiti in ovrednotiti vlogo in pomen improvizacije kot temeljne glasbenoustvarjalne dejavnosti pri pouku klavirja v slovenskih javnih glasbenih šolah. Ob kompoziciji je improvizacija najbolj celovita dejavnost glasbenega ustvarjanja. Ker pa je pri učencih, dokler ne spoznajo kompozicijskih tehnik in postopkov, vsaka kompozicija rezultat njihove predhodne improvizacije, se osredotočamo na slednjo. Teoretični del disertacije tako obravnava pojme ustvarjalnosti, glasbene ustvarjalnosti in improvizacije. Pri opredelitvi pojma ustvarjalnosti se opiramo predvsem na različne psihološke usmeritve in njihove teorije (Arieti, 1976; Deliège in Wiggins, 2006; Frager in Fadiman, 1998; Guilford, 1950; Maslow, 1999; May, 1975; Pečjak, 1987; Pečjak, Štrukelj, 2013; Sternberg, 2006; Ward, 2007), nato pa obravnavamo ustvarjalnost z različnih vidikov: z vidika okolja, ustvarjalnega procesa, osebnosti, produkta in tudi družbenega priznanja ter premikov (Amabile, 1996; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, 1999; Makarovič, 2003; Runco, 2004; Sawyer, 2000; Simonton, 2000; Sternberg, Lubart, 1995, 1999; Torrance, 1962; Trstenjak, 1981). Pomembno pa je tudi razumevanje teorije ustvarjalnosti z vidika nevroznanosti (Brattico in Tervaniemi, 2010, v Hargreaves idr., 2012; Dietrich, 2004; Haier in Jung, 2008; Jaušovec in Jaušovec, 2011; Trevarthen, 2012), saj potrjuje spoznanja, da gre za mehanizme, katerih potencial posedujemo bolj ali manj vsi in jih je torej potrebno vključevati v izobraževalni proces, spodbujati in ustrezno vrednotiti. Izraz glasbena ustvarjalnost razen opisa dejavnosti kompozicije in improvizacije v izobraževalnem sistemu poudarja pomen ustvarjalnosti za želeni način razmišljanja, ki predvideva osebnostne, učne in miselne spretnosti ter ustvarjalno mišljenje (Kratus, 1989; Oblak, 1987, 1995, 2000; Odena, 2012; Sicherl-Kafol, 2001) . Učni načrti za pouk klavirja v glasbeni šoli med vzgojnoizobraževalna področja vključuje tudi razvoj glasbene ustvarjalnosti, vendar je uresničevanje le-te odvisno od odgovornosti, znanj, stališč, presoje, ustvarjalnosti in naravnanosti v ustvarjalnost posameznega učitelja ter posledično njegove izbire didaktičnih gradiv oziroma učbenikov. Z namenom dobiti vpogled v prisotnost glasbenoustvarjalnih predlogov v nekaterih pogosto uporabljanih učbenikih v glasbeni šoli analiziramo prisotnost, pogostost in raznovrstnost vaj za spodbujanje glasbene ustvarjalnosti. Improvizacijo obravnavamo kot temeljno obliko učenčeve glasbene ustvarjalnosti pri pouku klavirja. Skozi različne poglede in definicije improvizacije (Bačlija Sušić, 2012; Bailey, 2010; Berkowitz, 2010; Deutsch, 1999; Koutsoupidou in Hargreaves, 2009; Pressing, 1987; Prevost, 1995; Sawyer, 2007; Stevens, 2007) ter njenih stilskih in izvajalskih omejitev se skušamo približati globljemu razumevanju tega kompleksnega fenomena. Z istim namenom jo primerjamo s kompozicijo in jo vzporejamo z učenjem jezika ter ugotavljamo pomen igranja po posluhu in transpozicije, kar poudarjajo tudi mednarodno uveljavljeni glasbenodidaktični koncepti pomembnih glasbenih pedagogov, kot so: Gordon, Willems, Suzuki, Dalcroze idr. Pregled zgodovinskih in etnomuzikoloških razsežnosti improvizacije omogoča vpogled v njeno široko navzočnost v zgodovinskih, kulturnih in raznolikih glasbenih kontekstih. Pregled improvizacijskih sposobnosti pri odraslih in razvoj le-teh pri otrocih odraža kompleksnost sposobnosti, ki jih zahteva dejavnost improvizacije, hkrati pa kaže na otrokom naravno danost učenja in izražanja skozi improvizacijo. Le-to izhaja iz raziskovalno-ustvarjalnega impulza ali iskanja novega, ki ga ne ovirajo pojmovanja o ''pravilni'' ali ''nepravilni'' glasbeni praksi ali konvencionalne sodbe o estetski lepoti (Hargreaves idr., 2012). Improvizacijo pa obravnavamo tudi v povezavi s telesnim gibom z več vidikov: z vidika izvajanja tona na klasičnih inštrumentih, ki je neločljivo povezan z gibom telesa; z vidika utelešene glasbene kognicije, ki predpostavlja neločljivost čutnih, kognitivnih in motoričnih procesov in z vidika ustvarjalnega izraza, ki izhaja iz doživete telesne izkušnje (Bowman, 2004; Bresler, 2004; Clarke, 2012; Davidson, 2012; Levant, 2006; Pelinski, 2005). Kljub slabo raziskani temi utelešene glasbene kognicije Dalcrozova Evritmija ponuja praktičen primer učenja glasbe na temeljih doživete telesne izkušnje, kar smo v procesu akcijske raziskave tudi uporabili. Tako glasbena improvizacija kot telesni gib pa sta vključena tudi v mnoge oblike terapevtskih pristopov in dokazana je vrsta pozitivnih učinkov (Bunt, 2012; Kroflič, 1999; Mastnak, 1995; Wigram, 2012), ki so v določeni meri prenosljivi v pedagoško prakso. Zadnje poglavje teoretičnega dela predstavi nov pristop rednega in sistematičnega vključevanja improvizacije v pouk klavirja kot sestavni del zbirke učbenikov za učenje klavirja I. in J. Puciharja Moj prijatelj klavir, ki omogoča učiteljem tudi brez znanja in prakse improvizacije spodbujanje te dejavnosti pri pouku klavirja. Dvodelna empirična raziskava v prvem, kvantitativnem delu, ugotavlja stališča in naravnanost učiteljev klavirja slovenskih javnih glasbenih šol, od katerih je odvisno, koliko in na kakšen način pri pouku klavirja v glasbeni šoli improvizacijo spodbujajo in jo udejanjajo. Anketiranje 95 učiteljev klavirja je bilo enkratno in je potekalo na slovenskih javnih glasbenih šolah od marca do maja 2014. Večina učiteljev v slovenskih javnih glasbenih šolah se sicer odloča za klasično poučevanje klavirja s poudarkom na učenju in interpretaciji zapisanih glasbenih del, kljub temu pa so improvizaciji naklonjeni, pripisujejo ji pomembno vlogo in imajo pozitivne izkušnje z njenim vključevanjem v pouk klavirja. Rezultati so pokazali tudi, da so predlogi za improvizacije eden izmed pomembnih razlogov, da se večina anketiranih učiteljev odloča za uporabo zbirke Moj prijatelj klavir. Drugi – kvalitativni del pa predstavlja multipla študija primera štirinajstih učencev klavirja, ki so bili v šolskem letu 2013/2014 poučevani z redno in sistematično vključeno improvizacijo; pretežno po predlogih iz zbirke učbenikov Moj prijatelj klavir. V treh ciklih kvalitativnega dela raziskave ugotavljamo in vrednotimo povezave predlogov za improvizacije z učenčevim glasbenoustvarjalnim mišljenjem, spontanostjo, svobodo izražanja, pozornostjo, motivacijo; s tehničnimi in interpretativnimi sposobnostmi, konceptualnim razumevanjem glasbe ter veseljem do nje in nazadnje z variiranjem nekaterih veščin improvizacije glede na starost, doživljanjem posameznih predlogov za improvizacijo in interesom učencev za lastno glasbeno izražanje. Improvizacija ne podpira le učenčevega ustvarjalnega potenciala, temveč tudi glasbeno-teoretična in izvajalsko-tehnična znanja in veščine, hkrati pa se je izkazala kot pomemben motivacijski dejavnik za učenje klavirja. Kot taka naj bi bila redno in sistematično integrirana v tradicionalni izobraževalni sistem učenja klavirja.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:glasbena ustvarjalnost, pouk klavirja, vaje za tehnične prvine, improvizacija, učbeniki, učitelji glasbe
Work type:Dissertation (m)
Tipology:2.08 - Doctoral Dissertation
Organization:AG - Academy of Music
Year:2016
Publisher:[I. Pucihar]
Number of pages:363 str..
UDC:780.616.433:37
COBISS.SI-ID:2579847 This link opens in a new window
Views:57
Downloads:21
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Secondary language

Language:English
Abstract:
The central goal of the doctoral dissertation is to research, elucidate and evaluate the role and significance of improvisation as a fundamental musical-creative activity in piano instruction in Slovenian public music schools. Along with composition, improvisation is the most complete activity of musical creativity. Until music pupils are familiar with the techniques and procedures of composition, each of their compositions is the result of their prior improvisation, which is why we focus on the latter. The theoretical part of the dissertation therefore discusses the concepts of creativity, musical creativity and improvisation. In defining the concept of creativity, we refer primarily to various psychological outlooks and their theories (Arieti, 1976; Deliège and Wiggins, 2006; Frager and Fadiman, 1998; Guilford, 1950; Maslow, 1999; May, 1975; Pečjak, 1987; Pečjak, Štrukelj, 2013; Sternberg, 2006; Ward, 2007). Creativity is then discussed from various perspectives: from the perspective of the environment, the creative process, the personality and the product, as well as from the perspective of social recognition and shifts (Amabile, 1996; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, 1999; Makarovič, 2003; Runco, 2004; Sawyer, 2000; Simonton, 2000; Sternberg, Lubart, 1995, 1999; Torrance, 1962; Trstenjak, 1981). An understanding of the theory of creativity from the perspective of neuroscience is also important (Brattico and Tervaniemi, 2010, in Hargreaves idr., 2012; Dietrich, 2004; Haier and Jung, 2008; Jaušovec and Jaušovec, 2011; Trevarthen, 2012), as neuroscience confirms the findings that creativity involves mechanisms whose potential is possessed by more or less everyone, and that it is therefore important to include these mechanisms in the education process, encouraging and appropriately evaluating them. In the education system, the term musical creativity, apart from describing the activities of composition and improvisation, emphasises the significance of creativity in fostering a desired way of thinking that anticipates personal, learning and thinking skills, as well as creative thinking (Kratus, 1989; Oblak, 1987, 1995, 2000; Odena, 2012; Sicherl-Kafol, 2001). The development of musical creativity is amongst the educational areas included in the curriculum for piano instruction in Slovenian music schools. However, the realisation of musical creativity depends on the responsibility, knowledge, viewpoints, judgement, creativity and creative disposition of the individual teacher, and consequently on their selection of didactic material or method books. In order to gain an insight into the presence of musical-creative suggestions in certain method books frequently used in Slovenian music schools, we analyse the presence, frequency and diversity of exercises for encouraging musical creativity. We discuss improvisation as a fundamental form of the pupil’s musical creativity in piano instruction. Through various perspectives on and definitions of improvisation (Bačlija Sušić, 2012; Bailey, 2010; Berkowitz, 2010; Deutsch, 1999; Koutsoupidou and Hargreaves, 2009; Pressing, 1987; Prevost, 1995; Sawyer, 2007; Stevens, 2007) and its stylistic and performance limitations, we attempt to approach a deeper understanding of this complex phenomenon. For the same purpose, we compare improvisation with composition and draw parallels with language learning. We also determine the importance of playing by ear and transposition, as emphasised by internationally recognised musical-didactic concepts by important music pedagogues, such as Gordon, Willems, Suzuki, Dalcroze, etc. A survey of the historical and ethnomusicological dimensions of improvisation enables an insight into its pervasive presence in diverse historical and cultural music contexts. An examination of the improvisational capabilities of adults and their development in children highlights the complexity of the abilities demanded by the activity of improvisation, while at the same time indicating children’s natural aptitude for learning and expressing themselves through improvisation. This is derived from children’s explorative-creative impulse or their seeking of the new, uninhibited by conceptualisation of “correct’’ or “incorrect” musical practice or conventional judgements about aesthetic beauty (Hargreaves idr., 2012). We also discuss improvisation in connection with bodily movement from various perspectives: from the perspective of performing a note on a classical inštrument, which is inseparably connected with movement of the body; from the perspective of embodied music cognition, which presupposes the inseparability of emotional, cognitive and motor processes; and from the perspective of creative expression, which is derived from bodily experience (Bowman, 2004; Bresler, 2004; Clarke, 2012; Davidson, 2012; Levant, 2006; Pelinski, 2005). Despite embodied music cognition being a poorly researched topic, Dalcroze Eurhythmics offers a practical example of learning music on the basis of bodily experience, a model that we have also applied in the process of action research. Both musical improvisation and bodily movement are also included in many forms of therapeutic approaches, and a range of positive benefits have been determined (Bunt, 2012; Kroflič, 1999; Mastnak, 1995; Wigram, 2012), which are to a certain extent transferable to pedagogical practice. The last section of the theoretical part presents a new model for the regular and systematic inclusion of improvisation in piano instruction as an integral part of the collection of piano method books by I. and J. Pucihar, entitled My Friend the Piano, which enables even teachers without knowledge and practical experience of improvisation to encourage this activity in piano instruction. The first, quantitative part of the two-part empirical research ascertains the viewpoints and disposition of piano teachers in Slovenian public music schools, who determine to what extent and how improvisation is encouraged and implemented in piano instruction in music schools. The research was conducted in Slovenian public music schools on a sample of 95 piano teachers, who were surveyed once in the period from March to May 2014. Although the majority of teachers in Slovenian public music schools opt for classical piano instruction with an emphasis on learning and interpreting notated musical works, most teachers are nonetheless positively inclined towards improvisation, attributing it an important role and reporting positive experiences with its inclusion in piano instruction. The results also show that the inclusion of suggestions for improvisation is one of the important reasons for the majority of the surveyed teachers electing to use the collection My Friend the Piano. The second, qualitative part of the empirical research presents a multiple case study of 14 piano pupils whose piano instruction in the 2013/14 school year regularly and systematically included improvisation, mainly based on suggestions from the collection of method books My Friend the Piano. In the three cycles of the qualitative part of the research, we determine and evaluate links between suggestions for improvisation and the pupils’ musical-creative thinking, spontaneity, freedom of expression, attentiveness and motivation; we examine the impact of improvisation on the pupils’ technical and interpretive abilities, their conceptual understanding of music and the pleasure they derive from music; and finally we investigate variations in certain improvisation skills with regard to age, the experience of specific suggestions for improvisation, and the pupils’ level of interest in their own musical expression. Improvisation supports not only the creative potential of pupils, but also their musical-theoretical and performance-technical knowledge and skills, while at the same time proving to be an important motivational factor in learning the piano. As such, it should be integrated regularly and systematically into the traditional education system for learning the piano.

Keywords:creativity, musical creativity, improvisation, piano instruction, teacher, method books

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