This paper presents the results of a thermo-economic (TE), primary-energy-factor and CO2-equivalent (CO2 (eq)), emissions-sensitivity analysis for the preparation of sanitary hot water (SHW) in fourth-generation district-heating systems. The annual required additional heat for the SHW provided by a local heating unit, based on an air-to-water heat pump (AWHP), a natural-gas boiler (NG boiler), and an electrical resistance heater (ERH), was determined using a trnsys simulation. Additionally, the seasonal performance factor (SPF) of the HP under consideration was determined. The study considered three possible supply temperatures, i.e., 35, 40, and 45 °C. The results show that a local heating unit based on an AWHP is most efficient in terms of the used primary energy (PE) and CO2 (eq) emissions. This unit is also the second best in terms of TE performance. The unit based on a NG boiler is much more appropriate than an ERH unit in terms of both the primary energy factor (PEF) and the CO2 (eq) emission factors for an electricity generation mix (EGM) that has values higher than the average for the EU-28. The heat generated by this NG unit is also cheaper than the heat produced by an ERH based on the average price for electricity in the EU-28.
|Keywords:||thermo-economic analysis, primary energy factor, emission analysis, district heating, simulations, heat pumps, emissions, energy systems analysis, heat energy generation, natural gas technology, fossil fuel, combustion|
|Work type:||Article (dk_c)|
|Typology:||1.01 - Original Scientific Article|
|Organization:||FS - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering|
|Publication status in journal:||Published|
|Article version:||Postprint, final article version, accepted into publication|
|Number of pages:||Str. 122003-1-122003-8|
|Numbering:||Vol. 140, iss. 12|
|ISSN on article:||0195-0738|
"Permission is granted for the deposit of the Accepted Manuscript of the paper in the University of Ljubljana institutional repository."
|Publication date in RUL:||02.04.2021|