A thermo-economic and emissions analysis of different sanitary-water heating units embedded within fourth-generation district-heating systems
ID Poredoš, Primož (Author), ID Vidrih, Boris (Author), ID Kitanovski, Andrej (Author), ID Poredoš, Alojz (Author)

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This paper presents the results of a thermo-economic (TE), primary-energy-factor and CO2-equivalent (CO2 (eq)), emissions-sensitivity analysis for the preparation of sanitary hot water (SHW) in fourth-generation district-heating systems. The annual required additional heat for the SHW provided by a local heating unit, based on an air-to-water heat pump (AWHP), a natural-gas boiler (NG boiler), and an electrical resistance heater (ERH), was determined using a trnsys simulation. Additionally, the seasonal performance factor (SPF) of the HP under consideration was determined. The study considered three possible supply temperatures, i.e., 35, 40, and 45 °C. The results show that a local heating unit based on an AWHP is most efficient in terms of the used primary energy (PE) and CO2 (eq) emissions. This unit is also the second best in terms of TE performance. The unit based on a NG boiler is much more appropriate than an ERH unit in terms of both the primary energy factor (PEF) and the CO2 (eq) emission factors for an electricity generation mix (EGM) that has values higher than the average for the EU-28. The heat generated by this NG unit is also cheaper than the heat produced by an ERH based on the average price for electricity in the EU-28.

Keywords:thermo-economic analysis, primary energy factor, emission analysis, district heating, simulations, heat pumps, emissions, energy systems analysis, heat energy generation, natural gas technology, fossil fuel, combustion
Work type:Article
Typology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:FS - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Publication status:Published
Publication version:Author Accepted Manuscript
Number of pages:Str. 122003-1-122003-8
Numbering:Vol. 140, iss. 12
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-125699 This link opens in a new window
ISSN on article:0195-0738
DOI:10.1115/1.4040102 This link opens in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:16164123 This link opens in a new window
"Permission is granted for the deposit of the Accepted Manuscript of the paper in the University of Ljubljana institutional repository."
Publication date in RUL:02.04.2021
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Journal of energy resources technology
Shortened title:J. energy resour. technol.
Publisher:American Society of Mechanical Engineers
COBISS.SI-ID:6870277 This link opens in a new window


License:CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Description:This is the standard Creative Commons license that gives others maximum freedom to do what they want with the work as long as they credit the author.
Licensing start date:02.04.2021

Secondary language

Keywords:termo-ekonomska analiza, faktor primarne energije, emisijska analiza, daljinsko ogrevanje, simulacije, toplotne črpalke, emisije, analiza energetskih sistemov, proizvodnja toplotne energije, tehnologija zemeljskega plina, fosilna goriva, zgorevanje


Funder:ARRS - Slovenian Research Agency
Project number:P2-0223
Name:Prenos toplote in snovi

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