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Pogodbeno pravo in pametne pogodbe (t.im. smart contracts): analiza izpodbojnosti pravnega posla zaradi napak volje
Jeršin, Rok (Author), Možina, Damjan (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Magistrska naloga “Pogodbeno pravo in pametne pogodbe (t.im. smart contracts): analiza izpodbojnosti pravnega posla zaradi napak volje” obravnava pravne učinke pametnih pogodb na tehnologiji porazdeljene evidence kolikor se v pravni teoriji ter stroki zastavlja vprašanje pravno-veljavne sklenitve takšnih pogodb. Avtor navedeno vprašanje razrešuje pod hipotezo veljavno sklenjene pametne pogodbe, če so izpolnjeni splošni pogoji glede sklepanja pogodb z vidika soglasja volj, pogodbenega predmeta ter kavze. V skladu s hipotezo se v nadaljevanju avtor opredeli do pravnih učinkov potencialnega izpodbijanja pogodbe zaradi napak volje ter navedeno aplicira na teoretsko različne konceptualizacije pametne pogodbe, poudarjeno na izpodbijanju zaradi zmote. V predmetni magistrski nalogi se posredno opravi še primerjava med sorodnimi rikardijanskimi pogodbami in nadalje, razišče domet odgovornosti podjemnika, to je programerja-strokovnjaka, kateremu je naročena izdelava pametne pogodbe za stranko. Pri tem je možna analogna uporaba pravil podjemne pogodbe. Avtor zaključuje, da izvorno nepravniško poimenovanje “pogodba” lahko pomeni pogodbo v pravnem smislu ter vzpostavi razlikovanje. Finalna pravno-ekonomska analiza pametnih pogodb v magistrski nalogi tako pokaže, da so sicer dobrodošla novost v gospodarskem prometu, ki pa prinaša nova tveganja za pogodbene stranke (oz. uporabnike), saj v prid garantirani samoizvršitvi efektivno preprečuje eksternalizacijo sklenitvenih napak na sopogodbenika, kar pa po drugi strani krepi pomen predvidljivosti ter pogodbene avtonomije strank. Odprto pa ostaja še vprašanje sodne interpretacije vsebine zapisa, saj sodne prakse konkretno s tega področja ni.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:pametne pogodbe, samozvršljivost, tehnologija veriženja podatkovnih blokov, izpodbojnost, rikardijanske pogodbe, deliktna odgovornost, žetonizacija, obligacijski zakonik, odgovornost programerja, podjemna pogodba
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Year:2021
COBISS.SI-ID:55492867 Link is opened in a new window
Views:63
Downloads:26
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Contract law and smart contracts: legal analysis of voidness of contract due to errors of will
Abstract:
The masters thesis presented here deals with legal effects of blockchain-based smart contracts from the perspective of contractual-law in theory and law in action, especially with respect to their legal bindingness. The main hypothesis is that smart contracts are perfectly valid contractual agreements, provided that prerequisite legal elements such as the meeting of minds, causa (i.e. consideration), legally-valid obligation, are in fact present. Actual presence of cited elements implies voidness of smart contracts which author tackles through the doctrine of mistake. Author furthermore differentiates between smart contracts and the so-called Ricardian contracts and lastly, explores potential civil liability of a programmer that can arise from his erronous drafting of a legal smart contract for another person to use. Possible solutions offered are analogous to those that are generally used for legal interpretation of service contracts with regard to programmers. Finally, author concludes that the term “contract” originally from the area of IT-technology, can also mean legal-contract and draws a distinction. With respect to the legal and economic analysis of smart contracts presented in this thesis it is therefore concluded that - while smart contracts should be welcomed as a useful expansion of legitimate commercial transactions - this does not come without it’s inherent newlyfound risk to parties of smart contracts. While they guarantee perfect performance, legal smart contract infact effectively precludes its party from externalising any mistakes of will that can arise in the process of concluding such contract while conversly, this same effect enhances party reliance and party autonomy. Also, it remains to be seen how courts would interpret legal smart contracts and their intended effects due to non-existence of court decisions from this particular area.

Keywords:smart contracts, self-execution, blockchain, voidness, Ricardian contract, non-contractual obligations, tokenization, Code of obligations, programmer liability, service contract

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