The modelling of the topography, geological and geotechnical conditions is not yet common in the construction industry, and BIM projects usually do not include surface-subsurface models. Hence, information about the topography, geological and geotechnical conditions is often outdated and excluded from the BIM procedures. If the surface and subsurface information is available and included in the BIM models, the processes of design, planning, construction, rehabilitation or demolition could enable advanced uses and applications of BIM that can improve the construction life cycle management.
With an increasing inclusion of the subsurface in BIM models, the need for standards for this type of models is emerging. Besides, the interoperability between geological/geotechnical software and BIM is continuously improving. Thus, this thesis first explores relevant project case studies, standards and software that enable modelling of the surface and subsurface in BIM. Based on the review, a digital workflow for modelling of surface-subsurface models for demanding technological facilities is proposed and tested on a case study of the hydro-power plant project HE Mokrice. Also, a proposal for standardisation in terms of the level of development for the surface-subsurface models is discussed, as well as some interoperability analysis between the software involved.
Finally, given that the infrastructure projects expose an increasing demand for BIM, consequently, this requires expertise in BIM methodologies for modelling of topography, geological and geotechnical conditions; this theoretical study and practical research work propose valuable workflows that can be implemented in the industry for technological projects. The proposed approach is opening a wide range of possibilities of uses in digital workflows that can generate significant savings in terms of time, costs, management of unforeseen events and problems for the AECO industry in the lifetime of constructions.