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Analiza eteričnih olj izbranih vrst cipresovk (Cupressaceae) : enoviti magistrski študij farmacije
Brodnjak, Simon (Author), Kočevar Glavač, Nina (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Eterična olja so kompleksne zmesi hlapnih spojin, ki jih tvorijo aromatične rastline. So hlapne lipofilne tekočine običajno močnega vonja, navadno z nižjo gostoto od vode. Po izolaciji so eterična olja bistra in brezbarvna, redko pa so rahlo obarvana. Uporaba eteričnih olj v zdravstvene, spiritualne in kulinarične namene sega več tisoč let v zgodovino. Danes je aromaterapija zelo razširjena, kljub temu da natančnih mehanizmov delovanja eteričnih olj večinoma ne poznamo. V magistrski nalogi smo proučili izbrana eterična olja cipresovk (Cupressaceae) z metodo plinske kromatografije, sklopljene z masno spektrometrijo (GC-MS). Identificirali in kvantificirali smo spojine v posameznih eteričnih oljih. Zanimale so nas razlike v sestavi eteričnih olj glede na geografski izvor, vrsto rastline in rastlinski del. Drugi del naloge je obsegal raziskovanje delovanj eteričnih olj analiziranih vrst rastlin ter posameznih spojin, ki so prisotne v analiziranih eteričnih oljih. Podatke o delovanju in vitro in in vivo smo pridobili v znanstvenih podatkovnih bazah. Iz zbranih podatkov smo iskali povezave v delovanju eteričnih olj in njihovih komponent. Analizirali smo eterična olja sedmih vrst brinov in navadne ciprese. Analiza z GC-MS je pokazala kompleksno sestavo eteričnih olj. Večina eteričnih olj vsebuje dve do tri glavne spojine, za katere je značilna velika vsebnost (nekaj 10 %) v primerjavi z večino prisotnih spojin. Analizirana eterična olja so imela zelo spremenljiv delež spojin glede na njihovo rastišče, prav tako smo opazili razlike v vsebnosti spojin med posameznimi vrstami.Eterična olja brinov in navadne ciprese imajo skupno antioksidativno, protivnetno, protirakavo, protiglivično in protimikrobno delovanje. Največ raziskav so izvedli z eteričnimi olji brinov, ki so jim dokazali antioksidativno, antiglikacijsko, protivnetno, protirakavo, protiglivično, protimikrobno, antihiperholesterolno, antidepresivno, antianksiozno in protiparazitno delovanje. Prav tako ugodno vplivajo na simptome Alzheimerjeve in Parkinsonove bolezni ter na izboljšanje spomina. Pri obravnavanih eteričnih oljih smo opazili relativno dobro ujemanje delovanja celotnega eteričnega olja in posameznih spojin, ki so prisotne v eteričnem olju. Posamezne spojine imajo dokazane še druge učinke, ki pa jih eterično olje ni izkazalo oz. jih raziskovalci še niso proučevali. Zaključujemo, da le na podlagi vsebnosti določenih spojin v določenem eteričnem olju ne moremo sklepati, kakšno bo delovanje tega eteričnega olja. Predvidevamo, da so delovanja eteričnih olj posledica sinergističnih učinkov v teh eteričnih oljih prisotnih spojin.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:plinska kromatografija cipresovke delovanje eteričnih olj delovanje posameznih spojin
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:FFA - Faculty of Pharmacy
Year:2018
Publisher:[S. Brodnjak]
Number of pages:VII, 54 f.
UDC:543.51: 665.52(043.3)
COBISS.SI-ID:4644209 This link opens in a new window
Views:102
Downloads:28
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Analysis of essential oils of selected cypress family (Cuprasseceae) species
Abstract:
Essential oils are a complex mixture of compounds that are produced by aromatic plants. They are evaporative lipophilic liquids with usually strong odour and with lower density than water. After isolation they are clear and colourless, rarely they become slightly coloured. Essential oils are used for health, spiritual and culinary purposes and their use dates back thousands of years in history. Despite the fact that the precise mechanisms of the essential oils are mostly unknown, aromatherapy is very spread today. In the master’s thesis we studied the chosen essential oils of the cypress family (Cupressaceae), using the method of gas chromatography together with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We identified and quantified the compounds in essential oils. We were interested in the differences of composition in essential oils regarding the geographical origin, the species of the plant, and the plant part. The second part of the master’s thesis involved researching the activities of essential oils present in the analysed plants and individual compounds that were present in the analysed essential oils. Necessary data was obtained from the published in vitro and in vivo studies. From the data collected we tried to find links between the function of essential oils and their components. We analysed essential oils from seven different kinds of juniper and Mediterranean cypress. GC-MS analysis showed a complex composition of essential oils. The majority of essential oils contain two to three main compounds, which are present in high contents (more than 10%) compared to the majority of other compounds. The analysed essential oils had a very variable content of compounds based on their growing site, we also noticed the differences in the content of compounds between individual species. The essential oils of juniper and Mediterranean cypress have common antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antifungal and antimicrobial effects. The majority of research were made with essential oils of juniper species that proved to have antioxidant, anti-glycation, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antifungal, antimicrobial, anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-depressive, anxiolytic and anti-parasitic effects. They also have a beneficial effect on improving memory and treating symptoms of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. We noticed a relatively good connection between the effects of essential oils and their individual compounds. The individual compounds have demonstrated many other biological effects that were not shown by the essential oils or the researchers have not studied them yet. We conclude, that based on the content of certain compounds in an essential oil we cannot deduce the effects of this essential oil. We can assume that the effects of essential oils aresynergetic effects of the individual compounds present in the essential oil.


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