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Vnos fosforja in beljakovin pri ledvični odpovedi
Hribar, Maja (Author), Knap, Bojan (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Namen diplomske naloge je bil ugotoviti, kako fosfor (P) in beljakovine vplivajo na zdravje bolnika s kronično ledvično odpovedjo (KLO). Redno spremljanje prehranskega statusa dializnih bolnikov je bistveno za doseganje optimalne prehranjenosti. V diplomski nalogi smo se najprej osredotočili na beljakovinsko-energijsko podhranjenost (PEM), ki je eden najmočnejših napovedovalcev obolevnosti in umrljivosti. Posledično je priporočen dnevni vnos beljakovin in energije precej visok, in sicer 1,2–1,4 g beljakovin/kg TM/dan ter 30–35 kcal/kg TM/dan. Nato smo se osredotočili na P in njegov pomen pri KLO. Postopno upadanje ledvične funkcije vključuje motnjo normalne homeostaze P, saj ledvice izgubijo sposobnost izločanja zadostne količine P z urinom. Obstaja tesna povezava med vnosom beljakovin in P, saj se ga največ nahaja v visoko beljakovinskih živilih in v predelani hrani v obliki aditivov. Zato morajo biti bolniki previdni, ko poskušajo doseči dnevni vnos beljakovin, da ne presežejo priporočenega vnosa P, ki pa je 800–1000 mg/dan. Prav tako ne smemo zanemariti razlike med organskimi in anorganskimi viri P. Pri KLO je nujna asistenca kliničnega dietetika, da seznani bolnika z ustrezno prehrano, ki bo najbolj ugodno vplivala na njegovo zdravje. V zadnjem delu opišemo različne pristope soočanja s težavo. Fosforjeva prehranska piramida je tudi zelo uporabno in enostavno razumljivo orodje, ki bolnikom pokaže, katera živila naj uživa. Na splošno se priporočajo beljakovinska živila visoke biološke vrednosti, ki imajo nizko vsebnost P. Za lažjo predstavo je na koncu vključen primer enodnevnega jedilnika.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:prehrana, kronična ledvična bolezen, kronična ledvična odpoved, vnos beljakovin, vnos fosforja, podhranjenost, prehranska priporočila, dnevni vnos
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2020
Publisher:[M. Hribar]
UDC:613.2:577.112:546.18:616.61-008.6
COBISS.SI-ID:32331267 Link is opened in a new window
Views:65
Downloads:21
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Phosphorus and protein intake in patients with kidney failure
Abstract:
The purpose of this dissertation was to determine how phosphorus (P) and protein affects the health of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Regular assessment of nutritional status of patients treating with dialysis is vital for optimal nutrition. In the dissertation, we focused on protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), which is one of the strongest predictors of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the recommended daily protein and energy intake is very high, 1.2–1.4 g protein/kg body mass (BM)/day and 30–35 kcal/kg BM/day. We then focused on P and its significance in CRF. The gradual decline in renal function involves a disturbance of normal P homeostasis, as the kidneys lose the ability to excrete P through urine. There is a close relationship between dietary protein and P intake, as it is found in high protein foods and food containing additives. Therefore, patients should be careful whilst trying to reach their daily protein intake, so that they don't exceed their recommended P intake of 800–1000 mg/day. We also shouldn't ignore the difference between organic and inorganic sources of P. In the case of CRF, the assistance of a clinical dietitian is important in order to acquaint the patient with an appropriate diet that will have the most beneficial effect on his or her health. In the last part, we describe different approaches on how to deal with the problem. The phosphorus food pyramid is also a very useful and easy to understand tool that shows patients which foods they should preferably consume. In general it is recommended to consume high protein foods of high biological value, that have a low P content. For ease of presentation, an example of a one-day diet is included at the end.

Keywords:nutrition, chronic kidney disease, chronic kidney failure, protein intake, phosphorus intake, malnutrition, dietary recommendations, dietary intake

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