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Skuta - mlečni izdelek iz skupine svežih sirov
ID Justin, Nina (Author), ID Čanžek Majhenič, Andreja (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Skuta spada v skupino svežih sirov, za katere je značilno, da ne zorijo in so mehke, pastozne konsistence. Izdelujejo se iz toplotno obdelanega kravjega, ovčjega ali kozjega mleka, ki je lahko posneto, delno posneto ali polnomastno. Mleko koagulirajo z dodatkom mlečnokislinskih bakterij ali pa je kislinska koagulacija podprta z encimsko, pri čemer se doda minimalno količino sirišča. Sledi ločevanje sirotke od koaguliranega mleka. Odcejanje doprinese k povišani vsebnosti kazeina v suhi snovi svežega sira, a po drugi strani k izgubi kalcija in serumskih proteinov. Ker pa so slednji biološko visokovredni proteini, so bile vpeljane različne možnosti izkoriščanja serumskih proteinov iz odcejene sirotke in njihovega vračanja v sveže sire, tudi skuto. Zaradi visoke vsebnosti beljakovin ima skuta visoko hranilno vrednost, visoka vsebnost vlage pa močno omejuje obstojnost izdelka. Ta se lahko podaljša s primernimi pogoji shranjevanja in zagotavljanjem higienskih pogojev proizvodnje. Čeprav za izdelavo svežih sirov veljajo osnovne tehnološke zakonitosti, pa so parametri posamezne tehnološke faze lahko razlikujejo glede na regijo proizvodnje. Tako dobimo mnogo različic osnovne tehnološke sheme ter poimenovanja izdelkov iz skupine svežih sirov, ki se razlikujejo od države do države. Za osvetlitev pestrosti izdelkov iz skupine svežih sirov bomo prikazali nekaj najznačilnejših postopkov njihove izdelave, s poudarkom na skuti.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:mlečni izdelki, sveži siri, skuta, tehnološki postopki, koagulacija, kislinska koagulacija, serumski proteini, podaljšanje obstojnosti
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Publisher:[N. Justin]
Year:2020
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-118674 This link opens in a new window
UDC:637.352:637.334.2
COBISS.SI-ID:27003651 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:30.08.2020
Views:894
Downloads:193
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Quarg - dairy product from the fresh cheeses class
Abstract:
Quarg is a fresh unripened cheese with a soft and smooth texture. It is made from either skimmed, partially skimmed or whole fat pasteurized cow's, sheep's or goat's milk. Milk is acidified by the use of lactic acid bacteria or acidification is aided by addition of very small amount of rennet. The gel is broken to encourage syneresis and after a few hours whey is separated from curd. Dewheying causes an increase of the casein content in the dry matter of fresh cheese, on the other hand some calcium and serum proteins are lost. However, since serum proteins are biologically valuable proteins, different techniques were introduced to utilize these proteins from drained whey and return them to fresh cheese. Quarg has a high nutritional value, due to its high protein content. Nevertheless, its high moisture content greatly limits the shelf life. This can be extended by suitable storage conditions and by hygienic conditions of quarg production. Although the production of fresh cheeses is governed by basic technological rules, the parameters of each technological phase may differ depending on the region of production. Thus, there are many variations of the basic technological scheme and, also different names of product, which differ from country to country. Some of the most established technological processes for fresh cheese production will be outlined, with an emphasis on quarg.

Keywords:dairy products, fresh cheeses, quarg, technological processes, coagulation, acid coagulation, serum protein, extending shelf life

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