Process parameters for FFF 3D-printed conductors for applications in sensors
ID Barši Palmić, Tibor (Author), ID Slavič, Janko (Author), ID Boltežar, Miha (Author)

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With recent developments in additive manufacturing (AM), new possibilities for fabricating smart structures have emerged. Recently, single-process fused-filament fabrication (FFF) sensors for dynamic mechanical quantities have been presented. Sensors measuring dynamic mechanical quantities, like strain, force, and acceleration, typically require conductive filaments with a relatively high electrical resistivity. For fully embedded sensors in single-process FFF dynamic structures, the connecting electrical wires also need to be printed. In contrast to the sensors, the connecting electrical wires have to have a relatively low resistivity, which is limited by the availability of highly conductive FFF materials and FFF process conditions. This study looks at the Electrifi filament for applications in printed electrical conductors. The effect of the printing-process parameters on the electrical performance is thoroughly investigated (six parameters, >40 parameter values, >200 conductive samples) to find the highest conductivity of the printed conductors. In addition, conductor embedding and post-printing heating of the conductive material are researched. The experimental results helped us to understand the mechanisms of the conductive network's formation and its degradation. With the insight gained, the optimal printing strategy resulted in a resistivity that was approx. 40% lower than the nominal value of the filament. With a new insight into the electrical behavior of the conductive material, process optimizations and new design strategies can be implemented for the single-process FFF of functional smart structures.

Keywords:additive manufacturing, material extrusion, fused-filament fabrication, polymer nanocomposite, process parameters, conductive filament
Work type:Article (dk_c)
Typology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:FS - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Publication status in journal:Published
Article version:Publisher's version of article
Number of pages:21 str.
Numbering:Vol. 20, iss. 16, art. 4542
UDC:621.9.04 (045)
ISSN on article:1424-8220
DOI:10.3390/s20164542 This link opens in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:25461251 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:18.08.2020
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Record is a part of a journal

Shortened title:Sensors
COBISS.SI-ID:10176278 This link opens in a new window


License:CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Description:This is the standard Creative Commons license that gives others maximum freedom to do what they want with the work as long as they credit the author.
Licensing start date:13.08.2020

Secondary language

Keywords:aditivne tehnologije, 3d tisk z ekstruzijo materiala, polimerni nanokompoziti, procesni parametri, prevodni filamenti

Document is financed by a project

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project number:P2-0263
Name:Mehanika v tehniki

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project number:J2-1730
Name:Polno zaznavanje prostorskih vibracij s hitro kamero z aplikacijami v digitalnih dvojčkih in oddaljenem zaznavanju

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