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Muslimani kot drugi v folklori in literaturi : med reprezentacijami in dejstvi
Golež Kaučič, Marjetka (Author)

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Abstract
Na podlagi tekstualne in kontekstualne analize besedil, spoznanj folkloristike, zgo-dovine in sociologije smo raziskovali upodobitve islama in pripadnika islama v literaturi in folklori. Spraševali smo se, ali so se podobe drugega morda oblikovale tudi ob teh temati-zacijah. V članku presojamo, ali je stereotipizacija islama in njegova večinoma negativna po-doba, znana iz folklornih in literarnih besedil, vplivala na odnos do islama kot religije in prek tega tudi do pripadnikov te religije ter ali se ta negativna podoba sčasoma lahko preoblikuje v pozitivno. Analizirali smo izbrane ljudske pesmi, ljudske pripovedi ter literarna besedila od Aškerca do sodobnosti glede na reprezentacijo in konceptualizacijo islama. Na podlagi analize besedil in teoretskih spoznanj ugotavljamo, da podoba muslimana ali Turka iz folklo-re in literature 19. stoletja prikazuje ontološko, religiozno in kulturno drugačnega tujega, kar povzroča odpor. Toda ko pesnik Aškerc obišče muslimansko okolje konec 19. stoletja, gre za časovni in personalni odmik od obdobja turških vpadov, in takrat se stereotipizacija prekine, drugačna izkušnja stika z islamom ga celo navduši, v njem odkriva podobnosti s krščanstvom, hkrati pa eksotiko, ki ga še posebej privlači. A še vedno se v pesmih skrivajo kritični toni. Negativna podoba pripadnikov islama v folklori in literaturi 19. stoletja prevla-duje, saj je kolektivni spomin na turško divjanje in povezanost islama in muslimanov z na-siljem izjemno trdovraten. Drugače pa je v literaturi prve svetovne vojne, saj je prav zaradi eksistencialne ogroženosti vseh udeležencev vojne v njej odsotna bojazen pred drugim, ki je muslimanske vere. Odnos do muslimanskega drugega po letu 1991 pa je predstavljen nevtralno, morda so negativne le tiste podobe, ki izhajajo iz arabskega sveta, sveta, ki je bil preveč oddaljen od nas in ga nismo poznali. Razprava je poskusila zajeti različnost odnosov do muslimanskega drugega, tako kot jih je bilo mogoče razbrati iz reprezentacij. Slovstvena podoba islama tako ni recept za dialog z drugim in drugačnim, je le možnost, da prek teh tematizacij ugotavljamo enoplastnost ali večplastnost teh podob. Ne moremo pa v analizo teh podob niti v njihov kontekstualni okvir aplicirati sodobnih medreligijskih trendov. Sodobna spoznanja, da dialog lahko poteka le na osebni ravni, da je mogoč le ob sprejemanju kulturne in religiozne različnosti, ki pa izhaja iz preseganja doktrinalnih in dogmatskih zapovedi tako islama kot krščanstva, vidimo tudi v nekaterih analiziranih besedilih.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:muslimani, folklora, literatura, reprezentacije, Drugi, kultura, religija
Tipology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:TEOF - Theological Faculty
Year:2019
Number of pages:Str.211-230
Numbering:Letn. 74, št. 2
UDC:28-051:398:82
ISSN on article:2335-4127
DOI:10.34291/Edinost/74/02/Golez Link is opened in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:11042307 Link is opened in a new window
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Edinost in dialog
Publisher:Inštitut za ekumensko teologijo in medreligijski dialog pri Teološki fakulteti Univerze v Ljubljani
ISSN:2335-4127
COBISS.SI-ID:268194560 This link opens in a new window

Document is financed by a project

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project no.:P6-0111
Name:Folkloristične in etnološke raziskave ljudske duhovne kulture

Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Muslims as others in folklore and literature : between representations and facts
Abstract:
On the basis of textual and contextual analysis of texts, knowledge of folkloristics, history and sociology, we have identified depictions of Islam and members of Islam in lite-rature and folklore. We hypothesize that images of the Other might have formed along these themes. The article examines whether the stereotyping of Islam and its mostly negative image, known from folklore and literary texts, have influenced attitudes towards Islam as a religion and, consequently, its members, and whether this negative image can be transformed into a positive one over time. We analysed selected folk songs, folk tales, and literary texts from Aškerc to the present with regard to the representation and conceptualization of Islam. Based on the analysis of texts and theoretical findings, we find that the image of Muslims/Turks in the 19th century folklore and literature, portrays the Other ontologically, religiously and culturally different, which in turn causes resistance. However, when the poet Aškerc visits the Muslim environment at the end of the 19th century, a temporal and personal break from the period of the Turkish invasions occurs; stereotyping is already interrupted, a new expe-rience of contact with Islam even impresses him, he discovers similarities with Christianity and is fascinated by the exotic. But there are still critical tones in his poems. The negative image of the adherent of Islam is prevalent in folklore and literature of the 19th century, since the collective memory of Turkish savagery and the connection of Islam and Muslims with violence is extremely persistent. It is different in the literature of the First World War. The reason for the change was the existential threat of all participants in the war that con-sequently caused the lack of the fear from the Other of the Muslim religion. After 1991, the attitude towards the Muslim Other is presented in a neutral way, except for the images from the Arab world, a world unknown and too far from us, that may be slightly negative. The article sought to capture the diversity of attitudes towards the Muslim Other as could be seen from the representations. The folklore and literary image of Islam is thus not a recipe for dialogue with the Other and the different but merely a possibility to identify single- or mul-tiple-layered images through these representations. However, contemporary interreligious trends cannot be applied to the analysis of these images nor to their contextual framework. The contemporary awareness that dialogue can take place only on a personal level, that it is possible only along with the acceptance of cultural and religious diversity, which results from transcending the doctrinal and dogmatic commandments of Islam and Christianity, is also seen in some of the analysed texts.

Keywords:Muslims, folklore, literature, representations, Other, culture, religion

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