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Razvijanje predbralnih in predpisalnih zmožnosti v predšolskem obdobju
Komotar, Maja (Author), Skubic, Darija (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/6273/ This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Učenje jezika se prične že ob rojstvu. Z razvojem, učenjem in raznolikimi izkušnjami nadgrajujemo jezikovno znanje. Otroci so v predšolskem obdobju močno dovzetni za učenje, zato je pomembno, da se v vrtcu posvetimo tudi razvijanju predbralnih in predpisalnih zmožnosti. Razvita funkcionalna pismenost je ključnega pomena za uspešno vključevanje posameznika v družbo. Vsaka država ima nacionalne dokumente, ki urejajo razvoj jezikovnega področja v izobraževalnih institucijah in v družinskem okolju. V magistrskem delu sem predstavila slovenske, hrvaške, norveške in ameriške nacionalne dokumente. Učenje se prične že v predšolskem obdobju, zato je pomembno, da se vzgojitelji predšolskih otrok zavedajo pomembnosti zgodnjega opismenjevanja, ki se prične že pri malčkih. Vsa pridobljena znanja na področju opismenjevanja pred vstopom v šolo poimenujemo porajajoča se pismenost. Otrokom naj bi zagotovili čim bolj jezikovno bogato okolje in jih spodbujali pri jezikovnem napredovanju. Pomemben vidik pa je tudi pozitiven lasten zgled odraslega, saj otroci odrasle v marsičem posnemajo. V raziskavo je bilo vključenih 107 vzgojiteljev predšolskih otrok, ki so zaposleni v vrtcih po celotni Sloveniji in so izpolnili anketni vprašalnik. Zanimalo me je, s katerimi dejavnostmi vzgojitelji predšolskih otrok razvijajo predbralne in predpisalne zmožnosti. Ugotovila sem, da vzgojitelji kot najpomembnejšo dejavnost za spobujanje opismenjevanja označujejo spodbujanje grafomotoričnih vaj, kot najpomembnejšo sporazumevalno dejavnost pa označujejo branje odraslega z otrokom in druženje ob knjigi. To se sklada z ugotovitvijo, da večina vzgojiteljev (zelo) pogosto bere otrokom, jim pokaže elemente knjige in način branja, ter da pogosto skupaj obiskujejo knjižnico. Vzgojitelji na področju vidnega zaznavanja najpogosteje otroke usmerjajo k opazovanju podrobnosti v prostoru in na sliki, otrokovo slušno zaznavanje pa najpogosteje razvijajo s pozornim in natančnim poslušanjem. Pomembnen element opismenjevanja je tudi družinska pismenost. Ugotovila sem, da jo vzgojitelji najpogosteje spodbujajo s knjižnim nahrbtnikom, starše pa o njeni pomembnosti ozaveščajo z individualnimi pogovori o njihovem otroku.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:predbralne spretnosti
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Year:2020
COBISS.SI-ID:20882179 This link opens in a new window
Views:291
Downloads:52
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Developing pre-reading and pre-writing skils in preschool period
Abstract:
Language learning starts at birth. Language skills are upgraded through development, learning and different experiences. Preschoolers have a strong ability to learn, and it is important to develop the pre-reading and pre-writing skills in the kindergarten. Developed functional literacy is the key to successful integration of individuals into society. Every country has its own national documents governing the language acquisition in educational institutions and in the family environment. In my master's thesis are described the Slovene, Croatian, Norwegian and American national documents. It is necessary to start learning in the preschool age and it is particularly important that the teachers of the preschool children are aware of the importance of the early literacy, that begins with toddlers. All attained knowledge in the fields of literacy at the preschool age is emergent literacy. It should ensure a language rich environment for children and it should promote their language development. An essential aspect is a positive example of the adult person, because children often imitate many things that adults do. The survey has involved 107 preschool teachers at kindergartens all over Slovenia, they have filled out the questionnaire, where I asked what activities the preschool teachers could use to develop the pre-reading and pre-writing skills. I have noticed that the teachers choose the development of graphomotoric skills as the most important activity that develops the literacy and as the most important communication activity, they choose reading books with children and the time spent together with books. This is in line with the finding, that the most teachers (very) often read to children, they show them elements of the book and different ways of reading, and that they often visit library together. In the field of visual perception, the preschool teachers mostly direct children to observation of details in the space and in the picture, they develop the auditory perception mostly with attentive and accurate listening. An important literacy element is also the family literacy. I have noticed that the preschool teachers mostly motivate children with book backpack, and they inform the parents during individual parent-teacher conference where they talk about their child.

Keywords:pre-reading skills

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