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Solidarnost žensk v boju proti seksizmu in nacionalizmu
Hajdarević, Aida (Author), Zorn, Jelka (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Glavni fokus v tem delu namenjam ženskim sodiščem. Za boljše razumevanje tega prostora, ki omogoča slišanost ženskih glasov in razvoj novega modela pravičnosti po meri žensk, raziskujem povezanost konceptov spola in nacije oz. seksizma in nacionalizma. Družbena konstrukcija spola žensko vlogo infantilizira, v današnjem času sploh takrat, kadar je govora o participaciji žensk v politiki, jo postavlja v podrejen položaj v odnosu do moških. Za sprejemanje odločitev je ženska »neprimerna«, »preveč čustvena« ipd. Seksizem je družbena struktura, ki ženske potiska v zasebno sfero, ženski pripisuje naravno vpetost v skrb za družino in skrbstveno delo na sploh. Nacionalizem spolne stereotipe okrepi. Prav tako reproducira meje in poglablja delitev na »mi« in »oni«, ženski pa dodeljuje vlogo zaščitnice teh meja, zaščitnice tradicije, videna je kot »mati nacije« in je posledično zadolžena za rojevanje »naših otrok«. Vse to pa vodi do tega, da je ženska v militarizmu objekt, orožje in tehnika, ki se jo uporablja v vojnah za premagovanje nasprotnika – »drugega«. Posilstva žensk v vojnah imajo simboličen pomen podrejanja »drugega« in se jih prakticira kot taktika za izbris druge etnije – z rojevanjem otrok druge etnične pripadnosti, ali pa kot simbol nezmožnosti nacije, da bi zaščitila »svoje« ženske. O vsem tem pričajo ženske na ženskih sodiščih, ki so neformalna, simbolna sodišča in nimajo pravnih procedur, vendar so pomembni prostori, ki ženskam dovoljujejo, da povedo svojo zgodbo, da opredelijo pravičnost po svoji meri in krepijo solidarnost žensk. Mreža ženskih sodišč je razpletena po celem svetu, kjer ženske pričajo v zelo različnih kontekstih, pa vendar so vse te zgodbe pripovedi o kršenju človekovih ženskih pravic, zgodbe bolečine, a tudi zgodbe upora. Skozi pričanja se ženske dotaknejo vseh oblik nasilja, v veliki meri spolnega, etničnega in vojnega nasilja, ki pa se med seboj prepletajo, dopolnjujejo in podpirajo. Pobudnice ženskih sodišč so aktivistke, feministke, ki so pogosto del ženskih protivojnih organizacij. Za primer ženskega sodišča na prostoru bivše Jugoslavije so glavne pobudnice Ženske v črnem, ki s simboloma tišine in črnih oblačil izražajo nestrinjanje in ogorčenost nad vojno nepravičnostjo in vsemi oblikami diskriminacij. Zgodbe žensk, ki so žrtve militantnega nacionalizma so bile utišane oz. preslišane. Kolektivni spomin nacije ni skladen z osebnimi spomini mnogih žensk, ki so preživele vojno nasilje. S pričevanjem na ženskih sodiščih pa njihove zgodbe postanejo javne. S pripovedovanjem svojih izkušenj so ženske dobile priložnost, da postanejo del kolektivnega spomina. Vloga socialnega dela pa je med drugim tudi ta, da sliši marginalizirane zgodbe in omogoča, da se izkušnje in znanja vpišejo v zgodovino.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:spol, nacija, ženska sodišča, nasilje, pričanje, kolektivni spomin
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Organization:FSD - Faculty of Social Work
Year:2020
Views:294
Downloads:133
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Women Solidarity in Fighting against Sexism and Nationalism
Abstract:
The primary focus of this paper lies within developing a better understanding of women's court. This platform enables women’s voices to be heard while constructing a new model of justice built on women’s principles. In order to further investigate the matter, I am exploring the connection between two concepts – gender and nation as well as sexism and nationalism. The construction of gender equates women with infants, especially in regard to their political participation, deems them inferior to men as well as labelling them as “inappropriate” and “too emotional” for decision-making. The social construction of gender limits women’s roles to their private sphere, family and care. Through the construction of nationalism and militant nationalism, the constructed gender role of women is reinforced. Based on closed boundaries of nationalism and dividing groups into “us” and “them”, nationalism gives women a special role inside these boundaries – to protect them as well as the nation’s tradition. A woman is seen as the “mother of the nation” and consequently she is obliged to give birth to “our children”. All of the aforementioned concepts lead to women being perceived as objects, weapons and techniques used in wars for defeating the opponents – “Others”. Raping women in wars has a symbolic meaning of subordinating the “Others” and is practiced as a military tactic for erasing the other nation either by giving birth to children of another nationality or as symbol of not being capable of protecting “your” women. These are among the testimonies heard at women’s courts, which are informal, symbolic courts, without legal standing. However, these courts are important platforms, which allow women to tell their stories, to define justice according to their standards and to strengthen women’s solidarity. The network of women’s courts is spread across the world, where women can testify in a variety of contexts, nevertheless all those stories consist of stories of violations of human women’s rights, stories of pain, but also stories of resistance. Through testifying women touch upon all forms of violence, mostly sexual, ethnic and military violence, which intertwine, complete and support each other. The initiators of women’s courts are activists and feminists who are often part of women’s anti-war organizations. For instance, the women’s court in the area of former Yugoslavia is primarily supported by the organisation Women in black, who express their disagreement and indignation at war injustice as well as all forms of discrimination with a symbol of silence and black clothes. The stories of women who are victims of militant nationalism have been silenced or ignored. The construct of nation’s collective memory is not accordance to many personal women experiences. However, when women testify in the women’s courts, their stories become public. By sharing their experiences, women have gotten the opportunity to become part of the collective memory. As well, the role of social work is to hear marginalized stories and enable the bottomed experiences and knowledge to become part of the history.

Keywords:gender, nation, women's courts, violence, testifying, collective memory

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