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Theatrum servitutum: pojavne oblike občepravnih služnosti
Žepič, Vid (Author), Kambič, Marko (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
V pravnozgodovinskem obdobju imenovanem usus modernus (med 16. in 18. stoletjem) so učeni pravniki s spajanjem institutov rimskega prava in institutov partikularnega pravnega izročila izoblikovali mešan pravni sistem (»ius romano-germanicum«). Rezultat eklektične metode je v pričujočem delu predstavljen na primeru t. i. občepravnih služnosti. Rimskopravne zemljiške služnosti so učenim pravnikom predstavljale dogmatični model za pojmovanje in inkorporacijo najrazličnejših pojavov fevdalne družbe v miselne kategorije občega prava in rimsko-kanonskega postopka. Med služnosti so v tem obdobju uvrščali upravičenja podeželskih sosesk oz. njenih članov na skupnih zemljiščih, medsosedska upravičenja (»zakonite služnosti«), podložništvo, patronatne pravice in odvetščine, najrazličnejše oblike prisilnih pravic, regalije (denimo patrimonialnega sodstva) in meddržavne služnosti. Pri usklajevanju rimskih in partikularnopravnih institutov so padla nosilna načela rimskega služnostnega prava, ki so jih učeni pravniki razglasili za praksi nepotrebna »pravna dlakocepstva« (subtilitates iuris). Zemljiška služnost je spričo teorije deljene lastnine lahko poslej obstajala tudi kot pravica na lastnem zemljišču. Nekatere služnosti je bilo mogoče odsvojiti ločeno od gospodujočega zemljišča, ki ga je vrh tega lahko predstavljala tudi skupnost zemljišč (res universalis). V nasprotju z rimskimi so občepravne služnosti obstajale tudi v storitvi. Navedena razmerja bi lahko zgoščeno opisali kot trajna premoženjskopravna upravičenja, ki so imela naravo stvarne pravice ter so se praviloma navezovala na zemljišče in ne na konkretno osebo. Razlog za nekoliko nenavadno uvrščanje navedenih razmerij med služnosti, ki je bilo sporno že v takratni literaturi, je izhajal iz še vedno tožbenopravno zasnovanega rimsko-kanonskega postopka ter spremenjenega pristopa k znanstveni obdelavi recipiranega rimskega prava. Obdobje usus modernus je bilo namreč zaznamovano z zbliževanjem pravne teorije in sodne prakse, iz česar je izhajala tudi potreba po odstopanju od pogosto togih načel prevladujoče pravne doktrine (communis opinio).

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:usus modernus pandectarum, recepcija rimskega prava, iura propria, zemljiške služnosti, skupna zemljišča, stvarno breme, deljena lastnina, podložništvo, netelesne pravice, servitutna regulacija
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Year:2020
COBISS.SI-ID:21638915 Link is opened in a new window
Views:335
Downloads:168
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Theatrum servitutum: Manifestations of Servitudes in the ius commune
Abstract:
The period of legal history known as usus modernus, from the 16th to the 18th century, was marked by amalgamation of legal institutions of Roman law and institutions, pertaining to the particular legal tradition (iura propria), thus forming a mixed law system (“ius romano-germanicum”). The thesis discusses the results of eclectic methodical approach in the light of the so-called “servitudes in the ius commune”. For learned jurists, Roman praedial servitudes represented a dogmatic model for conceptualization and incorporation of heterogeneous feudal phenomena into the categories of the ius commune as well as into the roman-canon legal procedure. In that era rights of local rural communities (or of their members) on the common land, various rights of neighbours (“legal servitudes”), the institution of serfdom, the right of patronage and advocatus, various types of banalités, regalia rights (such as the right of patrimonial jurisdiction) and international servitudes were classified as servitudes. The efforts to harmonise the institutes of Roman and particular law caused decomposition of fundamental principles of the Roman law of servitudes. They were proclaimed inconvenient and unnecessary Roman »legal subtleties« (subtilitates iuris) which tended to be omitted in legal practice. Consequently, servitude was, in view of the theory of double domain, applied even to one’s own property. Some servitudes could be alienated separately from the dominant property. The dominant property could consist in a community of pieces of land (res universalis). Contrary to the established Roman principle, the rule in ius commune dictated that servitudes existed in a performance of a positive duty of the owner of the burdened property. There are only few common features of previously listed legal relationships, which differ substantially from Roman and modern praedial servitudes: in a nutshell, they could be described as perpetual property rights with in rem character, which were bound to a piece of land rather than to a person. The reason for such a peculiar and highly controversial classification of legal relationships into the category of servitudes derived from the Roman-canon legal procedure, still based on legal actions, and from the changed scientific approach to civil law reasoning. The period of usus modernus was marked by convergence of legal theory and practice. Consequently, learned jurists of this period had to overcome overly rigid principles of the established legal doctrine (communis opinio).

Keywords:usus modernus pandectarum, reception of Roman law, iura propria, praedial servitudes (easements), common land, real burdens, theory of double domain, serfdom, incorporal rights (hereditaments), regulation of servitudes

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