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Temperatura in higiensko-tehnično stanje potrošnikovega hladilnika : magistrsko delo
Škufca, Tina (Author), Ovca, Andrej (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, Jevšnik, Mojca (Reviewer)

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Abstract
Uvod: Okužbe in zastrupitve s hrano predstavljajo vedno večji javnozdravstveni problem. Po poročanju Evropske agencije za varno hrano (EFSA), glede mesta potrjenih izbruhov okužb in zastrupitev s hrano, največji delež že vrsto let zasedajo domača gospodinjstva. EFSA je v letnem poročilu za leto 2017, izmed vseh prijavljenih primerov okužb in zastrupitev s hrano v Evropski uniji (EU), kot glavni znani vzrok za obolenja v domačem gospodinjstvu izpostavila neustrezno toplotno obdelavo živil, medtem ko drugo mesto zaseda neustrezna temperatura shranjevanja živil. Namen: Namen magistrskega dela je zato dobiti vpogled v zagotavljanje hladne verige pri potrošnikih in njihove navade. Metode dela: Z metodo »snežne kepe« je bilo v raziskavo vključenih 50 gospodinjskih hladilnikov, v katerih smo izmerili temperaturo zraka in središčno temperaturo standardiziranega testnega izdelka. Na osnovi vnaprej pripravljenega ocenjevalnega obrazca ter evidenčnega lista smo ocenili higiensko-tehnično stanje v hladilniku, navade potrošnikov, preverili roke uporabnosti živil ter spremljali pogostost odpiranja vrat hladilnika. Rezultati: Povprečna središčna temperatura standardiziranega testnega izdelka je znašala 5,9 °C (SD = 2,2 °C). Prav tako je povprečna temperatura zraka v hladilnikih potrošnikov znašala 5,9 °C (SD = 2,2 °C). Povprečne vrednosti temperatur zraka v hladilniku so bile neustrezne v 70 % preučevanih primerov, medtem ko so bile povprečne središčne temperature standardiziranega testnega izdelka neustrezne v 64 % primerov. Povprečna središčna temperatura standardiziranega testnega izdelka v hladilnikih na vasi je znašala 5,5 °C (SD = 2,0 °C), medtem ko v mestu 6,3 °C (SD = 2,4 °C). V mestnem okolju prevladuje večji delež higiensko neustreznih hladilnikov (72 %), medtem ko je v vaškem okolju v omenjenem stanju 32 % hladilnikov. Tehnično stanje materialov v hladilnikih je bilo ustrezno v 94 % primerov. Analiza rokov uporabnosti je pokazala, da je več kot polovica (64 %) pregledanih živil ustreznih. V mestnem okolju je živil s pretečenim rokom uporabe oz. datumom minimalne trajnosti 72 %, medtem ko je v vaškem okolju znašal ta delež 56 %. Potrošniki na vasi v povprečju odprejo vrata hladilnika 15-krat na dan, potrošniki v mestu pa 13-krat na dan, kar pa nima bistvenega vpliva na dvig središčne temperature testnega izdelka. Razprava in zaključek: Rezultati kažejo na ustreznejše temperaturno stanje v hladilnikih v Sloveniji v primerjavi z večino hladilnikov tujih držav. Večje pomanjkljivosti se kažejo v znanju in navadah potrošnikov, zato bi bilo smiselno razmisliti o novih (učinkovitejših) načinih informiranja oziroma izobraževanja potrošnikov.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:magistrska dela, sanitarno inženirstvo, gospodinjski hladilniki, temperatura, higiensko-tehnično stanje, roki uporabnosti živil, navade potrošnikov
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:ZF - University College of Health Studies
Year:2020
Publisher:[T. Škufca]
Number of pages:55 str., [24] str. pril.
UDC:614
COBISS.SI-ID:15494147 This link opens in a new window
Views:341
Downloads:162
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Temperature and hygienic-technical condition of consumers’ refrigerators : master thesis
Abstract:
Introduction: Foodborne infections and diseases are an increasingly important public health problem. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reports that households have now been the origin of the greatest majority of confirmed outbreaks of foodborne infections and diseases for a number of years. In its 2017 annual report, EFSA pointed to inadequate thermal food processing as the main known cause of food-related illnesses in households, with reference to all registered cases of foodborne infections and diseases in the European Union (EU), followed by inadequate food storage temperature as the second main cause. Purpose: The purpose of the master’s thesis is to gain insight into the condition of domestic refrigerators at the consumer end of the food and nutrition supply chain in Slovenia. Methods: Using the snowball sampling technique, we included in the research 50 domestic refrigerators, in which we measured air temperature and the standardized test product core temperature. Based on the evaluation form drawn up beforehand and a record sheet, we evaluated the sanitary and technical condition of the refrigerator and consumer habits, checked food products expirations dates and monitored the refrigerator door opening frequency. Results: Both the average standardized test product core temperature and the average air temperature in consumers’ refrigerators were 5.9°C (SD = 2.2°C). The average values of the air temperature in refrigerators proved inadequate in 70% of cases, while the average standardized test product core temperature values were inadequate in 64% of cases. The average standardized test product core temperature in the refrigerators in rural households was 5.5°C (SD = 2.0°C) and 6.3°C (SD = 2.4°C) in urban households. The share of refrigerators that were in inappropriate sanitary condition is greater in urban (72%) than in rural environments (32%). The technical condition of the materials was evaluated as appropriate in 94% of cases. The expiration date analysis showed that over a half (64%) of food products were not expired. The percentage of food products with expired expiration date or date of minimum durability was 72% in urban households and 56% in urban environments. Consumers open their refrigerators on average 15 times a day in rural and 13 times a day in urban households, which, however, does not significantly affect the raising of the test product core temperature. Discussion and conclusion: The results show that refrigerators in Slovenia have more appropriate temperatures than most refrigerators in other countries. As there are significant shortcomings in consumer knowledge and habits, it might be a good idea to think about new (more effective) ways of informing and educating them.

Keywords:master's theses, sanitary engineering, domestic refrigerators, temperature, hygienic-technical condition, shelf life of food, consumer habits

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