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Identification of avobenzone by-products formed by various disinfectants in different types of swimming pool waters
Lebedev, Albert T. (Author), Bavcon Kralj, Mojca (Author), Polyakova, Olga V. (Author), Detenchuk, Elena Andreevna (Author), Pokryshkin, Sergey Alexandrovich (Author), Trebše, Polonca (Author)

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Abstract
The increased use of sunscreens and other cosmetics containing UV filters causes human and environmental burden. Avobenzone is a widely used UV filter. In its pure form it is known to undergo several transformations including photo-isomerisation, photodegradation, and halogenation. Over 60 disinfection by-products were identified as transformation products of avobenzone in different disinfection reactions of chlorination and bromination in fresh and seawater. Two occasional samples of swimming pool water demonstrated the presence of some of these by-products at noticeable levels as judged by GC-MS peak areas. Although the toxicity of the majority of these products remain unknown, chlorinated phenols and acetophenones are known to be rather toxic. Aquatic bromination of avobenzone resulted in the identification of 33 disinfection by-products (DBPs). Many of them contain bromine in the molecular structure. Addition of copper salt slightly decreases conversion rate simultaneously increasing the levels of major brominated products. Photostability of 3 commercial sunscreen products (solar protection factor 30) containing avobenzone was studied under different experimental conditions including UVA/UVB, UVC photostimulation and chlorination. The commercial sunscreen products have completely different enhancing and inhibitory effect on avobenzone degradation under UVC light. The complex composition of commercial products caused also a protective shield in case of chlorinated solutions of commercial formulations exposed to chlorine and UVA/UVB light at the same time.

Language:English
Keywords:avobenzone, disinfection, seawater, bromination, sunscreens
Tipology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:ZF - University College of Health Studies
Year:2020
Number of pages:str. 105495-1-105495-8
Numbering:Vol. 137
UDC:543.4
ISSN on article:0160-4120
DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2020.105495 Link is opened in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:5783147 Link is opened in a new window
License:CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
This work is available under this license: Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 International
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Environment international
Shortened title:Environ. int.
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0160-4120
COBISS.SI-ID:25403136 This link opens in a new window

Document is financed by a project

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project no.:P3-0388
Name:Mehanizmi varovanja zdravja

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