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Identification of avobenzone by-products formed by various disinfectants in different types of swimming pool waters
Lebedev, Albert T.
Bavcon Kralj, Mojca
Polyakova, Olga V.
Detenchuk, Elena Andreevna
Pokryshkin, Sergey Alexandrovich
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The increased use of sunscreens and other cosmetics containing UV filters causes human and environmental burden. Avobenzone is a widely used UV filter. In its pure form it is known to undergo several transformations including photo-isomerisation, photodegradation, and halogenation. Over 60 disinfection by-products were identified as transformation products of avobenzone in different disinfection reactions of chlorination and bromination in fresh and seawater. Two occasional samples of swimming pool water demonstrated the presence of some of these by-products at noticeable levels as judged by GC-MS peak areas. Although the toxicity of the majority of these products remain unknown, chlorinated phenols and acetophenones are known to be rather toxic. Aquatic bromination of avobenzone resulted in the identification of 33 disinfection by-products (DBPs). Many of them contain bromine in the molecular structure. Addition of copper salt slightly decreases conversion rate simultaneously increasing the levels of major brominated products. Photostability of 3 commercial sunscreen products (solar protection factor 30) containing avobenzone was studied under different experimental conditions including UVA/UVB, UVC photostimulation and chlorination. The commercial sunscreen products have completely different enhancing and inhibitory effect on avobenzone degradation under UVC light. The complex composition of commercial products caused also a protective shield in case of chlorinated solutions of commercial formulations exposed to chlorine and UVA/UVB light at the same time.
1.01 - Original Scientific Article
ZF - University College of Health Studies
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ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Mehanizmi varovanja zdravja
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