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Učinkovitost manualnih postopkov po nihajni poškodbi vratne hrbtenice - pregled literature : diplomsko delo
Svoljšak, Maša (Author), Hlebš, Sonja (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, Ipavec, Matej (Co-mentor), Jakovljević, Miroljub (Reviewer)

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Abstract
Uvod: Quebeška delovna skupina je leta 1995 nihajno poškodbo vratne hrbtenice opredelila kot pospeševalno-pojemajoči mehanizem prenosa energije na vrat. Pri tem pride do nenadne ali prekomerne hiperekstenzije, hiperfleksije ali rotacije vratu. Poškodba predstavlja velik zdravstveni in socialno-ekonomski problem Tipično nastane kot posledica naleta avtomobila od spredaj ali iz strani pri avtomobilskih nesrečah. Trk lahko povzroči poškodbo kostnih ali mehko-tkivnih struktur (poškodba pravih sklepov, diskov, ligamentov, mišic in živčnega tkiva). Poškodovanci v akutni fazi najpogosteje poročajo o bolečini in otrdelosti vratu. Med ostale pogoste simptome spadajo glavobol, bolečina v zgornjem delu hrbta, ramenskem sklepu in zgornjih udih z morebitnimi motnjami občutenja, šibkostjo v zgornjih udih, vrtoglavico in utrujenostjo. Klinične smernice za obravnavo nihajne poškodbe vratne hrbtenice priporočajo kombinacijo različnih pristopov manualne terapije, kinezioterapije, informiranje poškodovanca o nihajni poškodbi, spodbujanje telesne dejavnosti in uporabo zdravil. Namen: V diplomskem delu smo želeli predstaviti učinke manualnih postopkov pri pacientih po nihajni poškodbi vratne hrbtenice. Metode dela: Literatura je bila iskana v podatkovnih zbirkah PubMed in Science Direct. Pri iskanju smo uporabili časovni okvir, in sicer od leta 2010 do 2019. Izbranih je bilo sedem prosto dostopnih člankov v angleškem jeziku, ki so proučevali učinkovitost manualnih postopkov pri osebah po nihajni poškodbi vratne hrbtenice. Rezultati: Vključevanje različnih manualnih postopkov, pri obravnavi pacientov po nihajni poškodbi vratne hrbtenice, prinaša pozitivne učinke na pojav simptomov. Tehnike suhega zbadanja, inhibicije subokcipitalnih mišic, mobilizacija živčevja, manipulacija fascije ter kombiniran izbor manualnih postopkov, pripomorejo k zmanjšanem vnosu protibolečinskih zdravil, izboljšajo indeks zmanjšane zmožnosti zaradi težav z vratno hrbtenico, post-travmatske simptome, zvišan prag zaznane bolečine povzročen s pritiskom in toplotnimi dražljaji, obseg giba ekstenzije v komolčnem sklepu pri dinamičnem testu živčevja za živec medianus, nociceptivni fleksijski refleks in obseg fleksije vratne hrbtenice. Razprava in zaključek: Izsledki pregledanih raziskav so pokazali, da različni postopki manualne terapije predstavljajo učinkovit način zdravljenja pacientov po nihajni poškodbi vratne hrbtenice. Potrebne bi bile nadaljnje raziskave z večjim številom preiskovancev in spremljanjem takojšnjih in dolgotrajnih učinkov terapije.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:diplomska dela, fizioterapija, vratna hrbtenica, nihajna poškodba vratne hrbtenice, manualna terapija, miofascialne prožilne točke, bolečina v vratu
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:ZF - University College of Health Studies
Year:2020
Publisher:[M. Svoljšak]
Number of pages:28 str., [2] str. pril.
UDC:615.8
COBISS.SI-ID:5782635 This link opens in a new window
Views:704
Downloads:322
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Effectiveness of manual therapy after whiplash injury - literature review : diploma work
Abstract:
Introduction: In 1995, whiplash was defined by the Quebec task force as an acceleration-deceleration mechanism of energy transfer to the neck. An acute whiplash injury follows sudden or excessive hyperextension, hyperflexion or rotation of the neck. It accounts as one of the major burdens of public healthcare and an important cause of disability. It typically results from rear-end or side-impact motor vehicle collision. The impact may result in bony or soft-tissue injuries (injury of facet joints, discs, ligaments, muscles or neural tissue). The affected individual most commonly complains of neck pain and stiffness in the acute phase. The other symptoms are headaches, upper back and shoulder pain, and upper limb pain. Patients may also complain of paraesthesias, numbness, weakness of the upper limbs, dizziness and tiredness. Clinical guidelines recommend a multimodal approach of manual therapy, kinesiotherapy, advice, early mobilization and medication. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to determine the effect of manual therapy after whiplash. Methods: Literature was gathered using PubMed and Science Direct. We selected seven full access articles in English, published between 2010 and 2019 which analyzed the effectiveness of manual therapy in patients after whiplash injury. Results: Different manual therapy approaches have positive effect on reducing the symptoms. The use of dry needling, inhibition of suboccipital muscle technique, neural mobilization, fascial manipulation and multimodal manual therapy found a reduction in analgesic use, neck disability index, posttraumatic stress symptoms, an improvement in pressure pain threshold, thermal pain threshold, range of motion of elbow during upper limb neurodynamic test, nociceptive flexion reflex and cervical spine range of motion. Discussion and conclusion: The results of the examined researches have shown that different manual therapy approaches can be used for treating patient after whiplash. Further researches with larger number of subjects are required. It would be reasonable to asses immediate and long-term effects.

Keywords:diploma theses, physiotherapy, cervical spine, whiplash injury, manual therapy, myofascial trigger points, neck pain

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