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Izredne razmere in odgovornost držav po mednarodnem investicijskem pravu
Žitnik, Brina (Author), Sancin, Vasilka (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Mednarodno investicijsko pravo je področje mednarodnega javnega prava, ki ureja pravice in obveznosti držav gostiteljic in tujih investitorjev v teh državah z namenom spodbujanja in varstva naložb. Mednarodni investicijski spori se pogosto rešujejo v okviru mednarodne arbitraže, ki jo lahko sprožijo tuji investitorji, če menijo, da jim je država s svojim ravnanjem kršila njihove pravice. Zaradi narave državnih posegov v času izrednih razmer, pa obstaja večja nevarnost za kršitve mednarodnih obveznosti držav v razmerju do tujih investitorjev. Naloga obravnava institute splošnega mednarodnega prava in mednarodnega investicijskega prava, ki so na voljo državam pred arbitražnimi tribunali v postopkih glede zatrjevanih kršitev v času izrednih razmer. Države so v svojem pravnem utemeljevanju precej omejene. Mednarodni investicijski sporazumi vsebujejo dva instituta, ki sta jim na voljo v času izrednih razmer, t.j. splošne izjeme in določbe o nadomestilu za izgube (compensation for losses clauses). Poleg obrambe na podlagi pogodbenih institutov se države lahko sklicujejo tudi na okoliščine, ki izključujejo protipravnost po mednarodnem običajnem pravu o odgovornosti držav (npr. nuja). Arbitražna praksa na področju tujih investicij, ki se je doslej ukvarjala z omenjenimi instituti, je relativno neusklajena, kar predstavlja dodatno težavo za vpletene deležnike. Pomanjkanje jasnih smernic glede dopustnega ravnanja držav v času izrednih razmer, se namreč odraža v nestabilnosti pravnega okolja.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:mednarodno investicijsko pravo, investicijska arbitraža, investitorji, investicije, izredne razmere, nuja
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Year:2019
COBISS.SI-ID:17106001 This link opens in a new window
Views:1264
Downloads:808
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Emergency Situations and the Responsibility of States under International Investment Law
Abstract:
The goal of international investment law consists of fostering and protecting foreign investments through a reciprocal arrangement of rights and obligations between host States and foreign investors. International arbitral tribunals provide fora for the resolution of Investor-State disputes to which the investors may turn in order to obtain relief for the breach of their rights under international invesment law. Due to the nature of State measures taken in emergency situations, there is a substantial possibility of breaches of State obligations owed to foreign investors. The following thesis provides an analysis of some of the legal mechanisms under general international law and international investment law which are available to respondent States before international arbitral tribunals in cases arising out of emergency situations. It will be shown that the array of defenses available to States is relatively limited. Investment treaties usually contain two relevant types of clauses, the ‘general exceptions’ and the compensation-for-losses clauses. In addition to the treaty-based defenses, States may also rely on circumstances precluding wrongfulness under customary international law, such as necessity. The arbitral practice that hitherto dealt with these institutes is relatively inconsistent, which presents a problem for all parties involved. The lack of clear guidelines on the permissible State action in emergency situations is primarily reflected in the lack of stability of the legal environment.

Keywords:International investment law, Investment arbitration, Investors, Investments, Emergency situations, Necessity

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