Since the first civilisations humans began to modify nature using breeding or other agricultural techniques. However, it is only the development of genetic engineering that enabled the exchange of genetic material between species that are not related. Although the goal of genetically modified organisms is to achieve higher yields, resistance to pests and diseases, there are also GMOs effects on human and animal health. Several studies report the occurrence of bacterial resistance, thiaminase and ω-6 fatty acids, the death of rodents that were fed with transgenic corn. However, the implementation of genetically modified organisms has also positive impacts, since the introduction of golden rice, which is a rich source of β-carotene, is saving lives of children in Africa and Asia. In addition, the transgenic plants are more resistant to pests and climate change and are becoming the norm today’s generations. In future research should be directed to the study of long-term effects on health especially in term of the potential impacts on human genome. Meanwhile the relevant legislation and risk assessment of single GMO on the precautionary principle is essential before such organisms are released in the food chain.