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Pomen dodatne strokovne pomoči za otroke, starše in učitelje v Osnovni šoli Antona Žnideršiča
Tomažič, Petra (Author), Rihter, Liljana (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
V magistrskemu delu sem želela raziskati, kakšen pomen pripisujejo otroci, starši in učitelji dodatni strokovni pomoči. Želela sem izvedeti več o počutju otrok in njihovih staršev ter mnenja učiteljev, ki se z otroki srečujejo. Zanimala so me pričakovanja, ki sledijo vložitvi zahteve za uvedbo postopka usmerjanja; kaj od pričakovanega se je oziroma se ni uresničilo; kako je odločba o usmeritvi vplivala na reševanje težav; kje udeleženci v procesu podpore in pomoči vidijo možne izboljšave; kakšna občutja jih spremljajo ipd. Na podlagi ugotovitev bo Osnovna šola Antona Žnideršiča v prihodnje lahko načrtovala spremembe, povezane z delom z otroki s posebnimi potrebami. Odločila sem se za kvalitativno raziskavo, saj sem želela pridobiti besedne opise. V teoretičnem uvodu sem opredelila pravico otrok s posebnimi potrebami do vključujočega izobraževanja ter navedla dejavnike (ne)uspešnega vključevanja. Pojasnila sem razliko med pojmoma integracija in inkluzija. V magistrskem delu sem opisala postopek usmerjanja otrok s posebnimi potrebami ter navedla možne programe vzgoje in izobraževanja. Ker sem raziskavo izvajala v sklopu redne osnovne šole, sem se v šestem poglavju podrobneje posvetila tej tematiki. Izpostavila sem tudi pomen sodelovanja staršev, v predzadnjem poglavju pa šolo povezala s socialnim delom. Teoretični uvod sem zaključila s poglavjem o izbrani osnovni šoli. V empiričnem delu so predstavljeni rezultati raziskave, v kateri je sodelovalo enajst otrok, enajst staršev ter sedem učiteljev. V intervjujih sem pozornost namenila splošnim temam (močna in šibka področja otroka, potek otrokovega običajnega dne, razumevanje otroka s sošolci itd.), obdobju pred izdajo odločbe, samemu postopku usmerjanja ter obdobju po izdaji odločbe. Ugotovila sem, da se težave pri otrocih pričnejo pojavljati različno, otroci jih običajno prepoznajo šele v šoli. Poleg staršev so učitelji tisti, ki prvi opazijo spremembe pri otroku. Odzivi staršev na težave so različni. Včasih se pojavi tudi zanikanje in prenašanje krivde na druge. V šoli pomoč prvi nudijo učitelji, zelo hitro se vključi tudi specialni pedagog. Informacije o možnosti usmerjanja starši po navadi dobijo šele v šoli. Znotraj postopka usmerjanja je potrebno zbrati različno dokumentacijo, pri čemer staršem pomaga šola. Od uvedbe postopka usmerjanja do dokončne odločbe preteče veliko časa. Večina otrok pomoč dobro sprejema, so pa tudi takšni, ki jim je pomoč odveč. Razlike nastajajo tudi pri razumevanju s sošolci. Nekateri so še vedno deležni zbadljivk in norčevanja vrstnikov. Primanjkljaji se po začetku prejemanja pomoči običajno zmanjšajo, ocene pa izboljšajo. Po mnenju staršev so za napredek odgovorni vsi udeleženi, kljub temu pa se nekateri učitelji še vedno velikokrat srečujejo s prenašanjem odgovornosti zgolj na šolo. Glede občutkov, ki spremljajo udeležene, do največjih nihanj prihaja pri starših. Na začetku pri njih prevladujejo negativni občutki, v času postopka usmerjanja se počasi začnejo priključevati pozitivni (npr. olajšanje). Po pričetku izvajanja dodatne strokovne pomoči negativne občutke večinoma nadomestijo pozitivni. Kljub prevladujočemu zadovoljstvu glede izvajanja dodatne strokovne pomoči, so sogovorniki navedli tudi nekaj predlogov za možne spremembe (hitrejše ukrepanje, boljše sodelovanje med vsemi udeleženimi, spoštovanje dolžnosti s strani vseh udeleženih, pogostejša pohvala otroka …). Na podlagi pridobljenih rezultatov sem ugotovitve poskušala povezati s teoretičnimi spoznanji. Podani predlogi izhajajo iz pridobljenih rezultatov in predstavljajo smernice, ki jih šola lahko uporabi za izboljšanje izvajanja dodatne strokovne pomoči. Navajam tudi predloge glede nadaljnjega raziskovanja.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:šola, otroci s posebnimi potrebami, starši otrok s posebnimi potrebami, učitelji otrok s posebnimi potrebami, dodatna strokovna pomoč, socialno delo
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Organization:FSD - Faculty of Social Work
Year:2019
Views:46
Downloads:16
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Importance of Additional Professional Assistance for Children, Parents and Teachers at Anton Žnideršič Primary School
Abstract:
The master's thesis takes a look at the importance children, parents and teachers ascribe to additional professional assistance. I wanted to learn more about the well-being of the children and their parents, and about the opinions of the teachers that work with these children. I was interested in the following: the expectations that arise after filing an application for the placement procedure; which expectations have been or have not been realised; how the placement order has influenced the problem-solving process; in which areas the participants in the support and assistance process see room for improvement; the emotions they are experiencing, etc. Based on these findings, the Anton Žnideršič Primary School will be able to plan future changes to the education of children with special needs. I decided to conduct qualitative research because I wanted to obtain verbal descriptions. In the theoretical introduction I defined the right of children with special needs to inclusive education and mentioned the factors behind (un)successful inclusion. I explained the difference between the terms ‘integration’ and ‘inclusion’. The master's thesis describes the placement procedure for children with special needs and mentions possible educational programmes. Since the research was conducted at an ordinary primary school, chapter six focuses more closely on this topic. The importance of cooperation from the parents is highlighted, while the penultimate chapter establishes a connection between school and social work. The theoretical introduction concludes with a chapter on the selected primary school. The empirical section presents the results of the survey in which eleven children, eleven parents and seven teachers participated. The interviews focused on general topics (the child's strengths and weaknesses, the course of an ordinary day in the child's life, how the child gets along with his/her classmates, etc.), on the period before an order is issued, on the placement procedure, and on the period after the order has been issued. It has been determined that children's problems emerge in different ways and that the children usually identify them only after starting school. Besides the parents, the teachers are the first to notice changes in the child. The parents react to these problems differently. Sometimes they are in denial and blame others. In school, the teachers are the first to provide help; the special education teacher also gets involved very early on. Parents usually receive information on the placement option only after their child starts school. During the placement procedure the parents have to gather various documentation; the school helps them with this. A great deal of time passes between the initiation of the placement procedure and the final order. Most children accept help well, but there are also some that find it a nuisance. There are also noticeable differences in how they get along with their classmates. Some are still teased and mocked by their peers. After they start to receive help, their deficiencies are usually reduced and their marks improve. In the parents' opinions, all those involved are responsible for this progress; nevertheless, some parents often delegate responsibility to the school alone. As regards the emotions experienced by those involved, the parents' opinions vary the most. In the beginning, they mostly experience negative emotions, but during the placement procedure positive emotions (e.g. relief) slowly join in. After the implementation of additional professional assistance begins, the negative emotions are, for the most part, replaced by positive ones. Despite the prevailing satisfaction with the implementation of additional professional assistance, the interlocutors have also given a few suggestions for changes (taking swifter action, better cooperation among all those involved, all parties involved honouring their obligations, commending the child more often, etc.). Based on the results obtained, I attempted to link the discoveries with the theoretical findings. The suggestions given are based on the results obtained and act as guidelines which the school could use to improve the implementation of additional professional assistance. Suggestions for further research are also given.

Keywords:school, children with special needs, parents of children with special needs, teachers of children with special needs, additional professional assistance, social work

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