Introduction: Pain in the lumbar region of the spine is the most common type of pain in the human muscular system. 90% of adults experience it once or more times in a lifetime. In an active life span, 50% of people endure this kind of pain at least once a year. The distinctive character of individual symptoms makes a differential diagnosis hard and the pain is often difficult to treat. The most common risk factor for intervertebral disc degeneration is increasing age. Risk factors moreover include poor ergonomics in the workplace, smoking, excess body weight, psychosocial factors, and pregnancy. Physical activity contributes to a better physical fitness of the individual and thereby reduces the probability of the first episode of lower back pain. Purpose: The purpose of this diploma thesis was to compare the effects of conservative and operative treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation based on literature. Methods: A systematic literature review was used, which included published research reports. Results: The literature review included nine studies. With the help of different rating scales, pain and incapacity were assessed three times: before treatment started, during treatment and after treatment was completed. In all studies, the result was a statistically significant reduction of pain and incapacity, regardless of the type of treatment. Five of the studies found that operative treatment was not superior to conservative treatment over short and longer periods. Discussion and conclusion: The results of these nine reviewed studies were very diverse, therefore further research is urgently needed. None of procedure has a definitive advantage, because the choice depends on multiple factors. When selecting an individual patient, the duration and intensity of the symptoms, neurological dysfunction, type and level of hernia on the spinal cord, function, life quality and degree of disability should be considered.