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(Ne)izpolnjenost pogodbenih predpostavk pri pametnih pogodbah
Dodič, Karin (Author), Grilc, Peter (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Pametne pogodbe, ki temeljijo na blockchain tehnologiji oziroma tehnologiji veriženja podatkovnih blokov so digitalni sporazumi, ki so vpisani v računalniški kodi, delujejo na podlagi blockchaina ali podobnih decentraliziranih podatkovnih tehnologijah in se samodejno izvršujejo brez potrebe po človeškem posredovanju. Da bi pravni red pametni pogodbi priznal pravno veljavnost in učinkovitost, mora le-ta zadostiti pogodbenim predpostavkam za pravno veljavnost in učinkovitost, ki jih določa slovensko obligacijsko pravo. To so predpostavke glede izjave volje in soglasja volj pogodbenih strank, kjer je ključna dilema razumevanje izjave volje pogodbene stranke, ki je zapisana v programski kodi; nadalje predpostavke glede subjektov in njihove pravne in poslovne sposobnosti, katerih obstoj je zaradi anonimizirane oziroma psevdonimizirane narave transakcij v blockchainu vprašljiv; predpostavke glede pravne podlage oziroma kavze, ki mora za veljavnost pogodbe nujno obstajati in biti dopustna; predpostavke glede predmeta obveznosti oziroma izpolnitvenega ravnanja, ki mora prav tako biti dopusten in mogoč ter nenazadnje predpostavke glede obličnosti, v kolikor se za dotično pogodbo zahteva, pri čemer pametna pogodba zaradi svoje narave težko zadosti najstrožjim zahtevam obličnosti. Le ob pogoju izpolnitve vseh teh predpostavk bo pametna pogodba veljala za pravno veljavno in učinkovito in imela tako možnost predstavljati alternativo obstoječim, »klasičnim« pogodbam.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:pametne pogodbe, blockchain, tehnologija veriženja podatkovnih blokov, pogodbene predpostavke, obligacijski zakonik, pogodbeno pravo, pravna veljavnost, pravna učinkovitost.
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Year:2019
COBISS.SI-ID:17033809 This link opens in a new window
Views:480
Downloads:203
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:(Non) fulfillment of contractual requirements in smart contracts
Abstract:
Smart contracts which are based on blockchain technology or other distributed ledger technology are digital agreements, entered into a computer code that operate on the basis of blockchain or similar distributed ledger technologies and are automatically executed without the need for human intervention. In order for a legal system to recognize legal validity and effectiveness of a smart contract, the latter must satisfy the contractual requirements for legal validity and effectiveness laid down by Slovenian law of obligations. These are requirements regarding the expression of will and concurrence of wills of the contracting parties, where the key dilemma concerns understanding the contracting party's will, which is written in a program code; requirements regarding legal entities and their capacity to have rights and obligations and capacity to contract, wherein the existence of the latter is questionable due to the anonymised or pseudonymized nature of blockchain transactions; requirements regarding the legal basis or the cause, which must necessarily exist and be admissible for the contract to be valid; requirements regarding the object of the obligation or the exercise behaviour that must also be admissible as well as possible and last but not least, requirements regarding the formality in so far as the respective contract requires it, wherein smart contracts, by its very nature, can hardly meet the strictest demands of formality. Only under the condition of fulfillment of all of these requirements will a smart contract be considered legally valid and effective, and thus be able to represent an alternative to the existing “classical” contracts.

Keywords:smart contracts, blockchain, distributed ledger technology, contractual requirements, Obligations Code, contract law, legal validity, legal effectiveness.

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