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Psihološka priprava in koncentracija pri športnih strelcih z zračnim orožjem : magistrsko delo
Gorjup, Špela (Author), Kajtna, Tanja (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Športno streljanje velja za eno izmed težjih športnih disciplin, saj od športnika zahteva izjemno zbranost in mirnost; tako mirnost roke in telesa kot tudi mirnost njegovega uma oziroma misli. Namen naloge je bil raziskati psihološko pripravo slovenskih športnih strelcev z zračnim orožjem, in sicer s puško in pištolo (10 m). Sodelovalo je 42 športnih strelcev, od tega 26 slovenskih reprezentantov. Ugotovili smo, da je najpogostejša tehnika sproščanja in umirjanja dihanje oziroma dihalne vaje. Te uporabljajo tako na treningu kot na tekmi, uporabljajo pa jih tudi, ko jih preseneti slab strel, oziroma imajo zapovrstjo slabe strele. Tedaj se tudi umaknejo se tudi s strelskega mesta. Velikokrat je bil omenjen tudi pogovor s trenerjem. Druga najpogostejša tehnika sta bila pozitivni samogovor in vizualizacija. Navadno so športniki uporabili kombinacijo teh treh možnih odgovorov. Ugotovili smo, da pri vprašalnikih anksioznosti obstaja majhna razlika v povprečjih. Prihaja pa do velikega odklona, kar pomeni, da so si športniki zelo različni po anksioznosti. Ko smo ugotavljali statistične razlike med starostjo in anksioznostma, smo ugotovili, da prihaja do statističnih razlik. Prav tako smo ugotavljali povezanost med številom ur, ki jih namenijo psihološki pripravljenosti, in stanjem anksioznosti oziroma potezi anksioznosti. Ugotovili smo, da gre za negativne povezanosti. To pomeni, da je pri večji anksioznosti število ur, namenjenih psihološki pripravi, manjše. Tu je veliko možnosti za napredek in zmanjšanje anksioznosti. Zanimala nas je tudi primerjava posameznega obdobja z anksioznostjo. Ugotovili smo, da gre za negativne neznantne do srednje povezanosti. To pomeni, da je z večjim številom ur, ki jih namenijo psihološki pripravi, manjša njihova anksioznost, kar je pričakovan rezultat. Pri primerjavi strelcev z zračno puško in pištolo se je izkazalo, da obstajajo manjše razlike. Razlike se kažejo pri anksioznosti in pri urah psihološke priprave. Statistika kaže na to, da strelci z zračno pištolo porabijo manj časa za pripravo kot strelci z zračno puško ter so tudi malo bolj anksiozni na dan tekmovanja. Analiza testa koncentracije po kriteriju iz priročnika za test pozornosti (TP) (Đurić, Bele-Potočnik in Hruševar, 1985), je pokazala, da naši strelci spadajo v povprečje. A večina odstopanj je nadpovprečnih ali izrazito nadpovprečnih. Primerjava med disciplinama je pokazala, da v 83 odstotkih primerov strelci z zračno puško dosegajo boljše rezultate. Zaključimo lahko tudi, da anksioznost in test koncentracije nista povezani. Vse analize kažejo na to, da obstaja veliko prostora za nadgradnjo same psihološke priprave.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:Športno streljanje z zračnim orožjem, anksioznost, koncentracija, tehnike sproščanja in umirjanja, psihološka priprava
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:FŠ - Faculty of Sport
Year:2019
COBISS.SI-ID:5612977 Link is opened in a new window
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Downloads:112
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Mental preparation and concentration in sports shooting with air pistol and air rifle
Abstract:
Sport shooting is considered one of the hardest sports disciplines as it requires stillness and extreme focus from the athletes. It requires the calmness of the hand and the body as well as the calmness of the mind. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the psychological preparation of Slovenian sport shooters with air rifle and air pistol (10 m). 42 sport shooters participated, including 26 shooters from the Slovenian national team. We found out that the most common techniques for relaxing and calming down are breathing exercises. These exercises are used in training as well in competitions. They are also being used when the competitors shoot a bad shot or when they have more bad shots in a row. It is also not uncommon that the competitors step away from the firing line when this happens. The conversations with the coach are also mentioned many times. The second most common technique was positive self-talk and visualization. Typically, athletes used a combination of theses three possible answers. We found that there was little to no difference in the outcome of the questionary of anxiety. However, there is a huge deviation, which means that the athletes act differently when they are anxious. We were studying the statistical differences between the ages and anxiety. We were also able to correlate the number of hours devoted to psychological preparations and anxiety. We found out that there are negative correlations, which means that the higher the anxiety level is, the less hours are spent on psychological preparations. There is a lot of room for improvement with dealing and reducing anxiety. We were also interested in comparing individual periods with anxiety. We found out that there were negative, unknown (very low) to medium-sized correlations. Which means that the more hours they spent on psychological preparation, the less anxiety they had, which was expected. When we compared the air rifle shooters and air pistol shooters, we found out that there are some differences between these two diciplines. The differences were noticeable in anxiety levels and in how many hours they spent on psychological preparation. Statistics show that air pistols shooters spend less time preparing than air rifle shooters and they also have higer levels of anxiety on competition day. The analysis of the concentration test according to the criteria in the Test Attention Handbook (Đurić, Bele-Potočnik and Hruševar, 1985) has shown that our shooters are average. But the most results are above average or markedly above average. Comparison across disciplines showed that in 83 % of cases, air rifle shooters delivered better results. We can also conclude that anxiety and the concentration test are not related. All analyses show that there is a lot of room for upgrading the psychological preparation.

Keywords:Sport shooting with air rifle and pistol, anxiety, concentration, mental tehniques, mental preparation

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