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Analiza trenutno veljavnih osnovnošolskih učbenikov za kemijo na osnovi oblikovanih kriterijev kakovosti
Zupanc, Nina (Author), Devetak, Iztok (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/5940/ This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Učbenik je sestavni del metodično-didaktičnega gradiva, ki se uporablja v procesu pouka in predstavlja vir informacij učencu, v pomoč pa je tudi učitelju pri poučevanju predmeta. Učbenik je vezan na šolski predmet in določeno stopnjo izobraževanja. V postopkih potrjevanja učbenikov obstajajo številne dileme in kritike, saj so nekateri mnenja, da naj država področje prepusti trgu, drugi pa menijo, da bi morala država to področje bolje uravnati oziroma ga voditi. Iz raziskave TIMSS 2007 je razvidno, da je 53 % učencev v osmem razredu v Sloveniji imelo učitelje, ki uporabljajo učbenik kot primarni vir poučevanja, kar je enako mednarodnemu povprečju. Učbenik kot dodatni vir poučevanja uporablja 47 % učiteljev, kar je po podatkih raziskave malo nad mednarodnim povprečjem. Med učitelji v Nemčiji je bila opravljena tudi raziskava, iz katere izhaja, da 34 % učiteljev uporablja učbenik za poglabljanje lastnega znanja. Pri potrjevanju učbenikov v Sloveniji ni enotnih kriterijev, zato se v potrjenih učbenikih pojavljajo napake, potrjevanje učbenikov pa je lahko podvrženo tudi pritisku založb. Glavni namen magistrskega dela je bil izdelava in ugotavljanje ustreznosti kriterijev za določanje kakovosti učbenikov za področje kemije, saj imajo ideje in pojmi v učbenikih pomemben vpliv na učenčeve predstave in na razumevanje temeljnih naravoslovnih pojmov in postopkov. Kriteriji analize učbenikov so bili izdelani za učbenike kemije v 8. in 9. razredu osnovne šole. Analizirani so bili trenutno potrjeni učbeniki za kemijo v osnovni šoli, po tematskih sklopih iz učnega načrta za kemijo. Z vsebinsko analizo so bili pridobljeni podatki o tem, koliko kriterijev vsebuje posamezni učbenik in kakšna je frekvenca pojavljanja kriterijev v analiziranih učbenikih po tematskih sklopih iz učnega načrta. Glede eksperimentalnega dela, ki se pojavlja v učbenikih, je bilo ugotovljeno, da učbeniki večinoma v analiziranih tematskih sklopih ne vsebujejo navodil za samostojno eksperimentalno delo učencev, ter da eksperimenti vsebujejo že napisana opažanja in sklepe. Če se v učbenikih pojavijo navodila za eksperimentalno delo, so le-ta napisana zelo strnjeno. Eksperimenti, ki so opisani, so podkrepljeni s slikovnim gradivom, ne vsebujejo pa piktogramov za uporabljene nevarne snovi. Učbeniki preko eksperimentalnega dela ne spodbujajo osnov znanstveno-raziskovalnega dela, saj v tekstu, vezanemu na eksperimentalno delo, zasledimo predvidevanja, kaj se bo zgodilo, pod eksperimenti so zapisana tudi opažanja in sklepi. Eksperimentalno delo v učbenikih od učencev ne zahteva, da opredelijo odvisne in neodvisne spremenljivke ter konstante pri poskusih. Naloge, ki prevladujejo v učbenikih, so nižjih taksonomskih ravni, saj od učencev zahtevajo le znanje, ki ga usvojijo v učnih enotah. Iz rezultatov analize je razvidno, da so v učbenikih novi in zahtevnejši pojmi odebeljeni, ali pisani z drugačno barvo, ter da so nove besede razložene s primeri. Največ reprezentacij je na simbolni ravni, sledijo jim reprezentacije na makroskopski ravni. V učbenikih je najmanj submikroreprezentacij in hibridnih slik. Učbeniki vsebujejo življenjske primere, ne vsebujejo pa veliko sodobnih znanstvenih vprašanj, s katerimi bi bila učencem predstavljena aktualna naravoslovna tematika. Učbeniki tudi ne vsebujejo jasnih medpredmetnih povezav, s katerimi bi učenci lahko znanje dodatno poglobili/ponovili pri drugih predmetih. Zaključiti je mogoče, da vsi analizirani učbeniki vsebujejo večino izdelanih kriterijev, razlike se med učbeniki pojavljajo pri kriterijih vezanih na naloge, eksperimentalno delo in slike.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:osnovna šola
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Year:2019
COBISS.SI-ID:12584265 This link opens in a new window
Views:311
Downloads:72
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Analysis of current elementary chemistry textbooks based on developed quality criteria
Abstract:
A textbook is part of a methodical-didactic material that is used while teaching. It represents a source of information for students as well as a helping tool for the teacher to prepare a lesson. A textbook is related to the subject or module and to a specific level. While validating textbooks, several dilemmas and critiques arise, since some believe that the state should leave the market to its own rules, while others insist that the state should regulate this area. The research TIMSS 2007 showed that 53 % of Slovenian pupils in the 8th grade had teachers that use a textbook as a primal source of teaching, which is the same as average international results show. A textbook as an additional source of teaching is used among 47 % of teachers; this is slightly above the world average according to the research. 34 % of teachers in Germany self-reported that they use the textbook to broaden their own knowledge. When it comes to validating textbooks in Slovenia, there are no unified criteria; therefore, we can spot mistakes in validated textbooks, not to mention that validation might be under pressure from the publisher. The main purpose of the research was to make and evaluate the quality criteria and evaluate textbooks for Chemistry in primary school. We have focused on that specific content because the ideas and concepts presented in them have an important effect on pupil’s understanding of fundamental natural concepts and procedures. Criteria were made for textbooks used in 8th and 9th grade of primary school; we have analysed currently validated textbooks. With qualitative and quantitative methods, we gained data of the number of criteria a single textbook contains and the frequency of occurrence of such criteria in the analysed textbooks according to the topics from the syllabus. In the experimental part of textbooks, we found out that in most textbooks there is no instruction for independent experimental learner’s experience and that the experiments contain already mentioned predictions and conclusions. If there are instructions for experimental work, their content is meagre. The described experiments are accompanied by pictures, but they do not include pictograms for dangerous substances. Textbooks do not encourage the basics of scientific work through experimental content, because the text already assumes what will happen. The experimental part of the textbook also does not demand to differentiate between the dependent and independent variable and experimental constant. When analysing criteria related to the prior knowledge learners possess, we have found out that textbooks demand only the knowledge related to the specific unit; there is no request to combine knowledge gained during natural science subjects in previous years. Majority of exercises are from the lower taxonomy levels because pupils reproduce what was already mentioned during the unit. The analysis shows that new and difficult words are written in bold or are coloured and sometimes they are explained by using examples. Representations are mostly on a symbolic level, followed by macroscopic level. Submicro representations and hybrid pictures are the least common features in the textbooks. Textbooks contain everyday examples, but they do not include plenty of current scientific questions that would help pupils to understand modern natural science. Textbooks lack clear interdisciplinary connections that could help pupils to broaden and revise their knowledge and knowledge gained from other subjects.

Keywords:primary school

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