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Mikoremediacija tal onesnaženih s fitofarmacevtskimi sredstvi
Bednar, Zita (Author), Suhadolc, Marjetka (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Fitofarmacevtska sredstva (FFS) so pomemben vzrok onesnaženja tal. Zato je pomembno razviti učinkovite in okolju čim bolj prijazne metode za remediacijo FFS v tleh. Mikoremediacija je nova, okolju prijazna in cenovno ugodna tehnologija, ki kaže velik potencial za učinkovito remediacijo tal onesnaženih s FFS iz različnih kemijskih skupin ob različnih okoljskih dejavnikih. Namen diplomskega dela je bil (1) pregled do zdajšnjih raziskav na področju mikoremediacije tal onesnaženih s FFS, (2) ugotoviti katere glive in zakaj so za to najprimernejše in (3) kateri dejavniki ter kako vplivajo na uspešnost mikoremediacije. Za ta namen smo pripravili prilogo kjer smo zbrali glavne parametre relevantnejših poizkusov mikoremediacije FFS. Ugotovili smo, da so za mikoremediacijo FFS najbolj primerne glive bele trohnobe iz rodov Phanerochaete, Trametes, Lentinus, Pleurotus, Phellinus, Polyporus, Boletus, Laccaria, Leccinum, Gloeophyllum, Coriolus, Hypoholma, Ganoderma, Bjerkandera, Phlebia, Tramella in Mortierella in talne glive iz rodov Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Chrinside in Verticillium. Te namreč v primerjavi z glivami iz drugih skupin, bakterijami in rastlinami, lahko tolerirajo večje vsebnosti FFS, so sposobne učinkovito remediirati FFS z bolj raznolikimi kemijsko-fizikalnimi lastnostmi, lahko uspevajo v širšem spektru okoljskih dejavnikov in tvorijo večje vplivno območje v tleh. Glavna pomanjkljivost mikoremediacije je slabo poznavanje vplivov abiotskih in biotskih dejavnikov na le-to, kar je ključnega pomena za manipulacijo le-teh in s tem izboljšanja učinkovitosti mikoremediacije. Do sedanje raziskave mikoremediacije FFS so bile večinoma izvedene v laboratorijskih pogojih, v tekočih gojiščih. Pri tem so variacije v pogojih preveč heterogene, da bi lahko natančno opredelili vplive dejavnikov. Zato je do komercialne uporabe mikoremediacije tal onesnaženih s FFS, potrebnih mnogo raziskav.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:fitofarmacevtska sredstva, mikoremediacija, bioremediacija, tla, glive
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2019
Publisher:[Z. Bednar]
UDC:502.174:504.5:661.16:579.64:582.28(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:9287801 Link is opened in a new window
Views:153
Downloads:40
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Mycoremediation of soil contaminated with plant protection products
Abstract:
Plant protection products (PPP) are important cause of soil contamination. That is why it is important to develop effective and environment-friendly methods for remediation of soil contaminated with PPP. Mycoremediation is new, environment-friendly and low-cost technology that has a big potential for effective soil remediation of PPP that belong to various chemical groups, within a wide range of different environmental factors. The purpose of the bachelor thesis was (1) an overview of studies in the field of mycoremediation of soil contaminated with PPP that were done till this point, (2) to find out which fungi and why they are the most suitable and (3) which factors and how do they effect the successfulness of mycoremediation. For this purpose compilation of the main parameters of relevant PPP mycoremediation experiments were collected. We found out that for mycoremediation of PPP are the most suitable white-rot fungi of the genera Phanerochaete, Trametes, Lentinus, Pleurotus, Phellinus, Polyporus, Boletus, Laccaria, Leccinum, Gloeophyllum, Coriolus, Hypoholma, Ganoderma, Bjerkandera, Phlebia, Tramella and Mortierella and soil fungi of the genera Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Chrinside and Verticillium. In comparison to fungi from other groups, bacteria and plants, they tolerate higher PPP concentrations, they can effectively remediate PPP with more diverse physical and chemical characteristics, they thrive in wider spectrum of environmental factors and they form a larger influence area in the soil. The main deficiency of mycoremediation is insufficient understanding of abiotic and biotic factors. That is crucial for manipulation of those and consequently for improvement of efficiency of mycoremediation of soil contaminated with PPP. Till this point, most of the mycoremediation-experiments where conducted in liquid cultures in laboratory conditions. Amonge those, variations in the conditions are to heterogenic to be able to define the influence of the environmental factors precisely. Thus, till the commercial usage of mycoremediation for remediation of soil contaminated with PPP, further studies are needed.

Keywords:plant protection products, mycoremediation, bioremediation, soil, fungi

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