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Preprečevanje pranja denarja s kriptovalutami
Kočnik, Urška (Author), Simoneti, Marko (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Kriptovalute so inovativen spletni plačilni sistem, ki omogoča psevdonimno izvajanje transakcij, ki se evidentirajo s pomočjo decentraliziranega računovodstva brez posredovanja in nadzora centralne institucije. Čeprav kriptovalute spominjajo na denar, pa zaradi svojih specifičnih lastnosti in vezanosti finančne regulacije na fiat denar niso zakonito plačilno sredstvo. Zaradi višje stopnje anonimnosti kot v tradicionalnih plačilnih sistemih obstaja pri kriptovalutnih sistemih večje tveganje za pranje denarja. Celovita regulacija na področju pranja denarja je onemogočena zaradi neobstoja centralne institucije nadzora, z regulacijo katere bi celovito uredili kriptovalutne trge. Zaradi globalnega značaja sistema so enostranski ukrepi na nacionalni ravni praviloma neučinkoviti, zato je za regulacijo na področju pranja denarja ključen odziv evropskega zakonodajalca. Evropska unija je s postavitvijo definicije virtualnih valut in vključitvijo menjalnic ter skrbniških ponudnikov denarnic pod zavezance del kriptovalutnega sistema podredila obstoječi evropski regulaciji, namenjeni harmonizaciji pravnih redov držav članic na področju preprečevanja pranja denarja. S tem se zmanjšuje tveganost pranja denarja na področju virtualnih valut, saj uporabniki, ki s kriptovalutami poslujejo preko novih zavezancev, zaradi izvajanja identifikacije kot dela načela poznavanja svoje stranke ne bodo več anonimni, njihove transakcije pa bodo nadzorovane. Slovenski zakonodajalec je virtualne valute uredil še pred sprejemom relevantne regulacije na evropski ravni, in sicer zavezance ureja širše kot peta direktiva o preprečevanju pranja denarja, vendar pri tem ostaja odprto vprašanje, ali so izvajalci začetne ponudbe žetonov zavezanci regulative. Nacionalna zakonodaja se bo morala novi direktivi prilagoditi z uvedbo obvezne registracije zavezancev in prilagoditvijo postopka verifikacije strank spletnemu poslovanju.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:kriptovalute, bitcoin, anonimnost, decentralizacija, virtualne valute, preprečevanja pranja denarja, Direktiva 2018/843, Zakon o preprečevanju pranja denarja in financiranja terorizma
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Year:2019
COBISS.SI-ID:16974929 This link opens in a new window
Views:5340
Downloads:283
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Anti-money Laundering with Cryptocurrencies
Abstract:
Cryptocurrencies are an innovative online payment system, which enables pseudonymous transactions, that are recorded in decentralized manner, without oversight and control of central authority. Although cryptocurrencies resemble money, they are not legal tender due to their special properties and connection of financial regulation to fiat money. Cryptocurrencies are susceptible to money laundering because of higher anonymity then in traditional payment system. Comprehensive regulation for the purpose of anti-money laundering is not possible because of lack of central authority that could be the subject of anti-money laundering regulation. Global reach of the cryptocurrency system renders unilateral measures on national level ineffective, therefore the response of European legislator is of crucial importance in the field of anti-money laundering regulations. European Union defined virtual currency, and regulated exchanges and custodial wallet providers as obliged entities, under existing harmonisation of national legal orders of member states in the field of anti-money laundering. Due to obligation of new obliged entities to perform identification of users as a part of know your customer procedure, users who hold currencies via a custodial wallet provider or enter into virtual currency transaction via virtual exchange can no longer be anonymous, transaction performed through obliged entities will also be monitored, which together with identification reduce the risk of money laundering process. Slovenian legislator regulated virtual currencies before the adoption of the relevant legislation on European level. Obliged entities in national law are defined wider than in the Fifth Anti-money Laundering Directive, although it remains unclear whether initial coin offerors are included under obliged entities. National legislation will have to adopt to new directive with introduction of mandatory registration of obliged entities and adjustment of verification process to online business performances.

Keywords:cryptocurrencies, bitcoin, anonymity, decentralize, virtual currencies, anti-money laundering, Directive 2018/843, Prevention of Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing Act

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