Half a century has passed since Pope Paul VI and Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras I greeted each other with a »kiss of peace.« This act that occurred in Jerusalem in 1964 opened the door for a »dialogue of love.« In that spirit, »The Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church« was established in 1979 and produced important documents. The last of these documents, Ravenna (2007), was a major step forward in the relations between the two Churches. However, the different receptions of this document and disunity within Orthodoxy with regard to the acceptance of the document have brought to light old conflicts and divisions. At this moment, the greatest challenge the dialogue faces is the common determination of the aim i.e. achieving the consensus on essential ecclesiological principles. Regarding that, the exploration of the applicability and limitations of the principles »unity in diversity,« »hierarchy of truths,« and the term »oikonomia,« could be very significant. In order to improve the dialogue, it should be expanded to all spheres of church life. Inner theological movements in both Churches will also be an important factor in the future development of the Orthodox-Roman Catholic dialogue.