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PREVERJANJE UČINKOVITOSTI VADBE MOČI Z GIMNASTIČNIMI VAJAMI NA IZVEDBO RAVNOTEŽNIH NALOG PRI AKTIVNIH STAREJŠIH OSEBAH : diplomsko delo
Pleško, Aleša (Author), Tomažin, Katja (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, Prevc, Petra (Co-mentor)

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Abstract
Verjetnost padcev se s staranjem povečuje, zaradi upada telesnih in kognitivnih zmogljivosti posameznikov. Moč je pomemben dejavnik stabilne drže. Ker je upad moči v starosti močno prisoten, je vadba za preventivo pred padci pogosto usmerjena v njen razvoj. V diplomski nalogi smo se osredotočili na vadbo za moč s pomočjo gimnastičnih vaj in drobnih rekvizitov, saj ne zahteva dragih vadbenih naprav in pripomočkov, tako da je finančno lahko dostopna vsem starostnikom. Takšna vadba posnema funkcijske gibe, ki so pomembni v vsakdanjem življenju vseh ljudi in hkrati je njena zahtevnost vzdrževanja težišča telesa nad podporno površino večja kot pri drugih vadbah moči. Vadbena enota je bila sestavljena iz dvanajstih nalog. Stopnjevanje obremenitve smo dosegli z načinom izvedbe posamezne naloge in z dodano serijo na sredini vadbenega programa. Temeljni cilj diplomske naloge je bilo ugotoviti ali zgoraj omenjena vadba izboljša teste moči in ravnotežja pri starostnikih. V raziskavi je sodelovalo 15 aktivnih starostnikov obeh spolov v vadbeni skupini, povprečne starosti 66,3 ± 4,8 let ter 18 starostnikov obeh spolov v kontrolni skupini, povprečne starosti 65,5 ± 5,9 let. Pred vstopom v raziskavo so podpisali informirano privolitev. Pred in po vadbi smo opravili teste izometrične moči izbranih mišičnih skupin ter teste statičnega in dinamičnega ravnotežja. Vadba je trajala devet tednov po dve vadbeni enoti v enem tednu. Rezultati so pokazali, da so vadeči po vadbi izboljšali moč iztegovalk in upogibalk trupa, vendar pri slednjem spremembe niso bile značilno drugačne od kontrolne skupine. Vadeči so zmanjšali hitrost gibanja središča pritiska na podlago pri stoji na trdi in mehki podlagi z odprtimi in zaprtimi očmi, vendar so bile spremembe značilno drugačne od kontrolne skupine le pri stoji na mehki podlagi z odprtimi očmi. Preiskovanci so prav tako izboljšali funkcionalni doseg z roko ter funkcionalni doseg z nogo naprej, vendar se spremembe med skupinama niso značilno razlikovale. Do značilnih izboljšanj ni prišlo v moči iztegovalk nog, odmikalk in primikalk kolka, plantarnih in dorzalnih fleksorjev gležnja, funkcionalnem dosegu z nogo nazaj in v stran ter testu štirih kvadratov.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:ravnotežje, starostniki, vadba za moč, gimnastične vaje, testi ravnotežja, testi moči
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:FŠ - Faculty of Sport
Year:2019
COBISS.SI-ID:5564337 Link is opened in a new window
Views:289
Downloads:127
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:The testing of efficiency of strength training with gymnastics exercises on performance in balance exercises in active elderly people
Abstract:
The risk of falls increases as people age because physical performance and cognitive resources reduce. Muscle strength is significant for standing firmly and reduction of muscle strength occurs with aging. Strength training is an efficent method of preventing the risk of falls. In this bachelor thesis, we focused on strength training with gymnastic exercises because it does not demand expensive fitness equipment, so it is financially accessible to elderly people. This strength training is well-structured to perform basic activities of daily living and furthermore, this type of training improves the ability to maintain a better upright position. In one training unit we did twelve exercises. We changed the way exercise was performed and added one series in the middle of a program to intensify it. The main aim of our work was to find out if strength training with gymnastic exercises improves the results of strength and balance tests. Fifteen active elderly people at an average age 66,3 ± 4,81 years provided a signed informed consent to participate in the study. In control group there were 18 elderly people at an average age 65,5 ± 5,9 years. Before and after the program all participants were tested for maximal isometric strength of selected muscle groups and for their static and dynamic balance. The program lasted for nine weeks with two trainings per week. Results showed that with training participants improved strength of trunk extensors and flexors, but changes of trunk flexors were not statistically different from those of control group. Significant changes were found with stance on soft and hard surface with eyes opened and closed but there was statistical difference from that of control group only with stance on soft surface with eyes opened. They improved at the leg functional reach in lateral way and in functional reach with hands, changes were not statistically different from those of control group. There were not any statistically significant differences found testing the leg functional reach in lateral and posterior way, the four squares and maximal isometric strength of selected leg muscles.

Keywords:balance performance, elderly people, strength training, gymnastic exercises, tests of balance, tests of strength

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