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Razumevanje agregatnih stanj vode ter procesov zmrzovanja in sublimacije vode pri učencih sedmega razreda osnovne šole
Tompa, Valerija (Author), Glažar, Saša A. (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/5701/ This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Kemijski pojmi so zaradi kompleksnosti predstavitve na treh različnih ravneh, tj. na makroskopski, submikroskopski in simbolni ravni ter zaradi želje po enostavnejši predstavitvi naravoslovnih procesov, težavni za razumevanje. Pri poučevanju kemijskih pojmov je zato smiselna uporaba ustrezno oblikovanih vizualizacijskih sredstev na vseh treh ravneh predstavitve. Razumevanje povezave med vsemi tremi ravnmi predstavitve kemijskih pojmov vodi do ustrezno oblikovanega razumevanja določenega kemijskega pojma, kar vpliva na uspešnost reševanja naravoslovnih problemov. Reševanje problemskih nalog je mogoče spremljati s pomočjo očesnega sledilca, ki omogoča pridobivanje podatkov o kognitivnih procesih posameznika oziroma skupine. V teoretičnem delu magistrskega dela je predstavljena vsebina, vezana na: poučevanje kemijskih pojmov na trojni ravni predstavitve; obravnavo agregatnih stanj snovi in delčne zgradbe snovi po vertikali izobraževanja; raziskave na področju razumevanja agregatnih stanj snovi in prehodov med njimi; vlogo reprezentacij na področju kemijskega izobraževanja ter procesiranje informacij in proučevanje kognitivnih procesov pri reševanju problemov. Empirični del magistrskega dela zajema raziskavo, v katero je bilo vključenih 30 učencev sedmega razreda osnovne šole. S pomočjo štirih avtentičnih problemskih nalog, ki so vključevale makroskopske in submikroskopske predstavitve, je bilo mogoče ugotoviti: 1) napačna razumevanja 3D dinamičnih submikroskopskih predstavitev agregatnih stanj vode in zmrzovanja vode ter procesa sublimacije vode na makroskopski in submikroskopski ravni; 2) kako uspešni in neuspešni učenci procesirajo informacije pri reševanju avtentičnih problemskih nalog; 3) na kateri ravni predstavitve uspešni in neuspešni učenci utemeljujejo izbiro 3D dinamičnih submikroskopskih predstavitev in proces sublimacije vode. Naloge so bile med reševanjem predvajane na računalniku v obliki zaslonskih slik, pri tem pa so bili spremljani očesni premiki učencev z očesnim sledilcem. Testator je sproti zapisoval njihove odgovore. Zbrani podatki so bili kvantitativno obdelani v programski opremi SPSS ter z vsebinsko analizo odgovorov učencev. Rezultati raziskave so pokazali, da učenci znajo izbrati 3D dinamične submikropredstavitve agregatnih stanj vode, vendar imajo težave pri podajanju njihovih utemeljitev. Najbolje so utemeljevali tekoče (20,00 %), najslabše pa trdno agregatno stanje (10,00 %). Najpogostejše napačno razumevanje trdnega agregatnega stanja je bilo vezano na razporeditev delcev (46,66 %), tekočega agregatnega stanja na gibanje delcev (60,00 %) in plinastega stanja na število delcev (23,33 %). Pri procesu zmrzovanja vode je 23,33 % učencev izbralo ustrezno submikropredstavitev procesa zmrzovanja vode, pri čemer jih je 13,33 % podalo ustrezno utemeljitev. 19,99 % učencev je sklepalo na makroskopske lastnosti snovi iz submikropredstavitve procesa zmrzovanja. Učenci so najslabše utemeljevali proces sublimacije vode, saj je bilo pri tem uspešnih zgolj 6,66 % učencev. 29,97 % učencev je povezovalo proces nastanka slane z zmrzovanjem vode. Utemeljitve izbire submikropredstavitev agregatnih stanj vode so bile pri uspešnih in neuspešnih učencih večinoma podane na dveh ravneh, in sicer na makroskopski in submikroskopski ravni, medtem ko pri zmrzovanju vode na makroskopski ravni. Pri procesu sublimacije vode je največ neuspešnih učencev podalo odgovor na makroskopski ravni, uspešna učenca pa na makroskopski in submikroskopski ravni. Ugotovitve raziskave z očesnim sledilcem so pokazale tudi, da so imeli uspešni in neuspešni učenci težave pri določanju ključnih informacij za submikropredstavitev trdnega agregatnega stanja, saj sta jim bili dve interesni področji pomembni pri reševanju naloge. Neuspešni učenci so imeli težave pri procesiranju informacij pri nalogi, vezani na zmrzovanje vode. Ugotovljene težave pri procesiranju informacij ter raznolika napačna razumevanja agregatnih stanj vode in prehodov med njimi bodo v pomoč učiteljem naravoslovja, saj bodo lahko s spremembo svojega načina poučevanja vplivali na odpravo oziroma preprečitev nastanka napačnih razumevanj ter na izboljšanje procesiranja informacij s pomočjo reševanja raznolikih problemskih nalog.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:napačna razumevanja
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Year:2019
COBISS.SI-ID:12422473  Link is opened in a new window
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Downloads:53
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Understanding of the states of water, water freezing processes, and sublimation of primary school seventh graders
Abstract:
Chemical concepts are difficult to understand due to their complexity of representation on three different levels (e.g. macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic level) and willingness to simplify the presentation of science processes. While teaching chemical concepts, it is reasonable to use properly designed visualization tools at all three levels of representation. The understanding of the link between all three levels of representation of chemical concepts leads to the development of an adequate understanding of the certain chemical concept which influences the successfulness of solving science problems. Problem tasks solving could be monitored by eye tracking that enables recruiting data about individual's or group's cognitive processes. In the theoretical part of the master's thesis topics are presented which are linked to teaching chemical concepts on triple level of representation, learning states of matter and particulate nature through the vertical of education, research in the field of understanding of states of matter and changing states between them, the role of representations in the field of chemical education, and information processing and studying cognitive processes while problem-solving. The empirical part of the master's thesis involves the research which included 30 students in the seventh grade of primary school. Based on four authentic problem tasks including macroscopic and submicroscopic representations, the following could be determined: 1) misconceptions of 3D dynamic submicrorepresentations of states of water and the freezing of water and the process of sublimation of water on the macroscopic and submicroscopic levels of representation; 2) how successfully and unsuccessfully students process the information between authentic problem tasks solving; 3) on which level of representation the successful and unsuccessful students justify the selection of 3D dynamic submicrorepresentations and the process of sublimation of water. While solving, the tasks were displayed on the computer in the form of screen images and the eye movements were monitored by eye tracking. An individual who tested the students was simultaneously writing down their answers. The collected data were analyzed quantitatively in the SPSS program and with the content analysis of students' answers. The results of the research showed that students can select 3D dynamic submicrorepresentations of states of water. However, they have issues in writing down the justifications of their selection. They justified the best the liquid state (20.00%) and the worst the solid state (10.00%). The most common misconception of the solid state was linked to particle arrangement (46.66%), of liquid state to particle movement (60.00%) and of gaseous state to a number of particles (23.33%). 23.33% of students selected the appropriate submicrorepresentation for the freezing of water and 13.33% of them wrote down the right justification of its selection. 19.99 % of students made a conclusion related to macroscopic properties of matter based on submicrorepresentation of the process of freezing. The students were the least successful in justifying the process of sublimation of water: only 6.66% of them were successful. 29.97% of students were connecting the process of forming a frost with the freezing of water. Successful and unsuccessful students' justifications of the selected submicrorepresentations of states of water were mostly given on two levels (e.g. macroscopic and submicroscopic level) while for the freezing of water on the macroscopic level. Most unsuccessful students wrote down the answer for the process of sublimation of water on the macroscopic level and both successful students on the macroscopic and submicroscopic levels. The research findings of eye tracking also showed that successful and unsuccessful students have issues in defining key information for the submicrorepresentation of the solid state of matter since two areas of interest were important for them while solving the task. Unsuccessful students had issues with information processing for the task related to the freezing of water. Shown difficulties in information processing and different misconceptions of states of water and changing states between them will be helpful for science teachers who could contribute to elimination or prevention of misconceptions and better information processing between different problem tasks solving by changing their teaching method.

Keywords:misconceptions

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