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Glutamat, ojačevalec okusa in nevrotransmitor
Muhič, Kristina (Author), Cigić, Blaž (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Najbolj razširjena aminokislina v naravi je glutaminska kislina, ki ima v prehrani velik pomen, zaradi nje lahko zaznamo umami okus. Ta okus je pri večini populacije všečen, saj gre za okus po mesu (v japonščini beseda umami pomeni slastno). Prav zaradi te lastnosti so bile objavljene številne raziskave, ki so se z uporabo glutamata v živilih, lotile reševanja nekaterih prehranskih problematik sodobne družbe. Z dodatkom natrijevega glutamata v živila so ta senzorično sprejemljiva z zmanjšano količino soli. Kljub temu, da tudi natrijev glutamat vsebuje natrij, pa je njegovo razmerje veliko manjše, kot pri kuhinjski soli. Velik potencial ima tudi kot sredstvo, ki pripomore k povečanem vnosu hrane pri starejših. Na to vpliva tudi sposobnost stimulacije receptorjev v prebavilih, preko katerih poteka signalizacija o prebavi proteinov. Glutaminska kislina je neesencialna aminokislina, ki se v zadostnih količinah proizvaja v telesu, endogeni glutamat pa se vključuje predvsem v proces razgradnje aminokislin ter regulacijo sekrecije inzulina. Poleg sodelovanja v omenjenih procesih, predstavlja glutamat glavni vzdražni nevrotransmitor v centralnem in enteričnem živčnem sistemu. Še vedno sicer obstajajo odprta vprašanja glede škodljivih učinkov vnosa glutamata na zdravje.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:glutamat, umami, receptorji, sol, vnos hrane, gastrointestinalni trakt, razgradnja beljakovin, enterični živčni sistem, negativni učinki na zdravje
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2019
Publisher:[K. Muhič]
UDC:547.466.64:543.92:577.1
COBISS.SI-ID:5046904 Link is opened in a new window
Views:743
Downloads:187
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Glutamate, flavor enhancer and neurotransmitter
Abstract:
The most widespread amino acid in nature-glutamic acid has an important role in food. It is one of the molecules that defines the umami taste. This taste is pleasing to the majority of the population, as it is a taste of meat (in Japanese, the word "umami" means savoury). Because of this characteristic, a number of studies have been published in which scientists tried to solve some of the nutritional issues of modern society by using glutamate in foods. Sodium glutamate can be to some degree used as a sodium chloride substitute. This is nevertheless not fully possible, as the salt, in addition to the function of the flavor enhancer, defines some other important properties of the food that cannot be replaced with sodium glutamate. Sodium glutamate has a much better potential as a compound for helping to increase food intake of older people, by stimulating the gastrointestinal receptors through which signaling of protein digestion takes place. Considering that this is a non-essential amino acid, it is produced in sufficient quantities in the body. Endogenous glutamate is mainly involved in the degradation process of amino acids and the regulation of insulin secretion. In addition to participating in these processes, glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central and enteric nervous system. There are still open questions about the possible harmful effects of glutamate on human health.

Keywords:glutamate, umami, receptors, salt, food intake, gastrointestinal tract, degradation of proteins, enteric nervous system, negative effects on health

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