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Zlorabe prevladujočega položaja in modernizacija uporabe 102. člena PDEU
Bernard, Luka (Author), Grilc, Peter (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, Zajc, Katarina (Co-mentor)

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Abstract
Predmet obravnavane teme je presoja izključevalnih zlorab prevladujočega položaja, ki jih prepoveduje 102. člen Pogodbe o delovanju Evropske unije (PDEU). Izključevalne zlorabe so zlorabe, kjer prevladujoče podjetje vpliva na učinkovito konkurenco tako, da izključi konkurente s trga in povzroči škodo potrošnikom. Evropska komisija je reformirala področje izključevalnih zlorab prevladujočega položaja s sprejemom Sporočila Komisije - Navodila glede prednostnih nalog izvrševanja Komisije pri uporabi člena 82 Pogodbe ES (danes je to 102. člen PDEU) za izključevalna ravnanja, s katerimi prevladujoča podjetja zlorabljajo svoj položaj. Namen tega dokumenta je poenotiti obravnavo izključevalnih zlorab prevladujočega položaja podjetja in preiti od formalističnega obravnavanja k presoji po učinku. Formalistična uporaba 102. člena PDEU je značilna za preteklo sodno prakso Sodišča Evropske unije, ki se je pri presoji posameznih primerov osredotočala na kategorije ravnanj, kot so izključna nabava, vezana in paketna prodaja, predatorstvo, zavrnitev dobave in cenovne škarje. Znotraj posameznih kategorij ravnanj je sodna praksa oblikovala različna merila presoje. Takšen pristop je problematičen, saj velikokrat različne poslovne prakse zasledujejo isti cilj. Zato ni razumno, da se presoja osredotoča le na obliko ravnanj prevladujočih podjetij. Modernejši pristop je presoja po učinku, saj se osredotoča na presojo učinkov ravnanja prevladujočega podjetja na potrošnike v konkretnem primeru. Takšna presoja zahteva podrobnejšo analizo dejanskega stanja v smislu vpliva na ceno, količino, kvaliteto in izbiro proizvodov. Sprejem presoje po učinku zagotavlja enotno obravnavo različnih poslovnih praks, ki služijo istemu namenu in povzročajo enake učinke. Prednosti presoje po učinku je sodna praksa v Združenih državah Amerike že zaznala in zato s tako uporabo tudi pričela pred Evropsko unijo. Izbrani in predstavljeni primeri sodne prakse iz Združenih držav Amerike lahko služijo kot prikaz značilnosti presoje po učinku. Rezultati analize tudi kažejo, da je Evropska komisija v Navodila vnesla hibridni pristop, ki temelji na sodni praksi Sodišča EU, vendar jo je obenem pomembno dogradila z elementi ekonomskih spoznanj presoje po učinku. Prve sprejete odločbe Evropske komisije s tega področja po sprejemu Navodil in primeri iz sodne prakse Združenih držav Amerike prikazujejo, kako se presoja po učinku kvalitativno razlikuje od formalističnega pristopa. Njeno bistvo je v analizi empiričnih podatkov v konkretnem primeru in iz tega izpeljano sklepanje, ali je podjetje s prevladujočim položajem vplivalo na položaj potrošnikov. Na podlagi ugotovljenih pomanjkljivosti Navodil in obenem prikazanih temeljnih značilnosti presoje po učinku iz predstavljenih primerov, oblikujemo metodologijo presoje po učinku, ki je hkrati skladna s pravom EU in manj kazuistična kot Navodila sama.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:izključevalne zlorabe prevladujočega položaja, 102. člen PDEU, formalistični pristop, presoja po učinku, škoda potrošnikom
Work type:Doctoral dissertation (mb31)
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Year:2019
COBISS.SI-ID:16711505 Link is opened in a new window
Views:190
Downloads:105
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Abuses of Dominant Position and Modernization of the Application of Article 102 of the TFEU
Abstract:
The thesis at hand focuses on exclusionary abuses of dominant position, which are prohibited in accordance with Article 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Exclusionary abuse defines any anti-competitive conduct by businesses holding a dominant position, which impedes effective competition by excluding competitors and thereby harming consumers. The European Commission reformed the approach to exclusionary abuses of dominant position by adopting the Communication from the Commission – Guidance on the Commission’s enforcement priorities in applying Article 82 (Nowadays Article 102 TFEU) of the EC Treaty to abusive exclusionary conduct by dominant undertakings. The purpose of this document is to ensure a unified framework regarding the control of exclusionary abuses of dominant position and to move from form-based approach to an effects-based approach. Form-based approach under Article 102 TFEU is typical for older jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), which in its judicial review focused more on categories of conduct, such as exclusive dealing, tying and bundling, predatory pricing, refusal to deal and margin squeeze. Within individual categories the jurisprudence shaped different criteria for their illegality. Such approach is problematic since various commercial practices frequently serve the same purpose. Therefore, focusing solely on the type of conduct of the dominant undertaking is not reasonable. A more modern effects-based approach focuses on the impact of the anti-competitive conduct of the dominant undertaking on consumers. Its implementation requires a more detailed analysis of the impact on price, quantity, quality and variety. Adopting such an approach would ensure a unified treatment of different commercial practices, serving the same purpose and with the same effects. The advantages of an effects-based approach had been recognized and used in the United States of America before the European Union. The selected and presented jurisprudence issues of the United States of America shall therefore serve as a model of an effects-based approach. The results of the analysis also reveal that the Guidance Paper by the European Commission introduces a hybrid approach, which although based on CJEU jurisprudence, has been upgraded with elements of modern economics regarding effects-based approach. The first decisions of the European, made after adopting the Guidance paper and jurisprudence of the United States of America, demonstrate the qualitative differences between the effects-based approach and the form-based approach. The major objective of effects-based approach is to analyse empirical data in the case at hand and inference thereof, whether dominant undertaking affected consumers’ interests. In line with the identified deficiencies of the Guidance paper and presented fundamental characteristics of effects-based approach, a methodology of an effects-based approach, which is in accordance with EU law and less detailed than the Guidance paper itself, is proposed.

Keywords:exclusionary abuses of dominant position, Article 102 TFEU, form-based approach, effects-based approach, consumer harm

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