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Vrednotenje okoljskega vpliva enodružinske stavbe : magistrsko delo
Umek, Aljoša (Author), Kunič, Roman (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, Božiček, David (Co-mentor)

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Abstract
V zadnjem času se čedalje več pozornosti posveča trajnostni gradnji oz. trajnostnemu razvoju, saj se kot družba začenjamo zavedati posledic, ki jih prinašata uporaba gradbenih materialov ter njihov vpliv na naše zdravje. Razlog za povečano pozornost in zanimanje za trajnostni razvoj je dejstvo, da so stavbe povezane s štiridesetimi odstotki rabe končne energije, vsaj 36 odstotki izpustov CO2 in ne nazadnje tudi precejšnjo količino odpadkov (40 %), ki nastanejo med gradnjo in uporabo. Ena izmed metod za oceno okoljskega vpliva proizvodov je ocena življenjskega cikla (LCA), s katero je mogoče kvantitativno ovrednotiti, kakšne obremenitve na okolje povzročajo proizvodi in sistemi v vseh fazah njihove življenjske dobe. V magistrski nalogi je predstavljena analiza okoljskih vplivov gradbenih proizvodov, uporabljenih v konstrukcijskih sklopih, ki sestavljajo posamezne različice enodružinske hiše. Pri tem so bile uporabljene okoljske deklaracije proizvodov EPD, s katerimi so preko rezultatov metodologije LCA podane informacije o vplivu gradbenih proizvodov na okolje. Pri okoljskem vrednotenju rezultatov je bila upoštevana zgolj faza A1–A3 (»od zibelke do vrat«), ki obsega le del življenjskega cikla, preden je proizvod dostavljen uporabniku, torej od pridobivanja surovin in proizvodnje do mesta za odpremo iz tovarne. V magistrski nalogi smo najprej analizirali in primerjali okoljske vplive posameznih gradbenih materialov, ki sestavljajo konstrukcijske sklope obravnavanih različic objekta. Nato smo obravnavali objekt kot celoto, kjer smo za predvidene konstrukcijske zasnove objekta ovrednotili posamezne kazalnike vplivov na okolje. Na koncu pa smo uporabili poenostavljeno točkovanje za ovrednotenje skupnega (celostnega) okoljskega vpliva, pri katerem smo upoštevali okoljske vplive pri vseh sedmih kategorijah in posamezne različice objekta razvrstili glede na njihov okoljski vpliv. Ugotovili smo, da endoskeletne različice ne izkazujejo v vseh primerih manjši okoljski vpliv kot eksoskeletne konstrukcijske zasnove. Izkazalo se je tudi, da lesene zasnove objektov izkazujejo najmanjši vpliv na okolje. Materiali, uporabljeni za nosilno konstrukcijo (izvzeti je treba opeko, beton in porobeton) in toplotno izolacijo, imajo prevladujoč vpliv na okolje. Na podlagi rezultatov smo ugotovili, da na končne rezultate vplivata zasnova konstrukcije (masivna ali okvirna) in kombinacija uporabljenih materialov.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:okoljski vpliv, gradbeni proizvod, konstrukcijski sklop, nosilna konstrukcija, LCA, okoljska deklaracija proizvoda, EPD, enodružinska stavba
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:FGG - Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering
Year:2019
Publisher:[A. Umek]
UDC:502.4:728.3(043.3)
COBISS.SI-ID:8771169 This link opens in a new window
Views:651
Downloads:344
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Evaluation of the environmental impact of a single-family building : graduation thesis
Abstract:
Lately, increasing attention is being placed on sustainable construction or sustainable development, because we as a society are beginning to be aware of the consequences of the use of building materials and their impact on our health. The reason behind this greater focus on and interest in sustainable development is the fact that buildings are responsible for 40% of final energy consumption, for at least 36% of CO2 emissions, and, last but not least, for a substantial amount of waste (40%) generated during construction and use. One method of assessing the environmental impact of products is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which enables a quantitative assessment of the burden on the environment caused by products and systems in all stages of their service life. The master's thesis presents an analysis of the environmental impacts of building products used in constructional assemblies that make up individual versions of a single-family house. The analysis was conducted using the Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs), which provide information on the impact of building products on the environment by referring to the results of the LCA methodology. The environmental impact was assessed by considering the A1–A3 (“cradle-to-gate”) life cycle stages, which covers only a part of the life cycle before the product is delivered to the user, i.e. from the raw material extraction and manufacture to the factory gate. The master's thesis begins by analysing and comparing the environmental impact of individual building materials which make up the constructional assemblies of the discussed versions of the building. It continues by analysing the building as a whole and assessing individual environmental impact indicators for the planned structural designs. In the end, it uses a simplified scoring system to assess the total (comprehensive) environmental impact, taking into account the environmental impacts in all seven categories. This total (comprehensive) environmental impact of all seven categories was then assessed in a simplified way, and individual versions of the building were classified according to their environmental impact. It has been established that the filigree structure versions don't always show a lower environmental impact than the solid structure designs. As it turns out, wooden buildings have the lowest environmental impact. The materials used for the load-bearing structure (not including brick, concrete and aerated concrete) and for the thermal insulation have a dominant impact on the environment. Based on the results, it has been established that the end results are influenced by the structural design (massive or framed) and by the combination of the materials used.

Keywords:environmental impact, construction product, construction sets, supporting structure, LCA, environmental declaration, EPD, single-family building

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