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Izpolnjevanje higiensko-tehničnih zahtev ponudnikov hrane v premičnih in/ali začasnih obratih : magistrsko delo
Prevolšek, Vanja (Author), Jevšnik, Mojca (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, Ovca, Andrej (Co-mentor)

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Abstract
Uvod: Izbruhi nalezljivih bolezni, povezanih s hrano, so po statističnih podatkih Evropske agencije za varno hrano pogosti tudi pri manjših premičnih in/ali začasnih obratih s hrano. Konec leta 2018 je EFSA v sodelovanju z Evropskim centrom za preprečevanje in obvladovanje bolezni izdala letno poročilo na področju zoonoz, njihovih povzročiteljev in izbruhov, povezanih s hrano, v letu 2017. Na ravni EU je bilo v letu 2017 v povezavi s premičnimi in/ali začasnimi obrati potrjenih devet izbruhov, kar je za 4,5-krat več kot v letu 2016 in 2013. Trend pojavljanja črevesno nalezljivih bolezni kaže, da zagotavljanje varne hrane malim premičnim in/ali začasnim živilskim obratom predstavlja velik izziv. Namen: Namen magistrskega dela je oceniti stopnjo skladnosti izpolnjevanja higiensko-tehničnih zahtev ponudnikov hrane v premičnih in/ali začasnih obratih v Sloveniji s splošnimi načeli higiene živil Codex Alimentarius in zahtevami Uredbe (ES) št. 852/2004 o higieni živil. Metode dela: Z metodo kvantitativnega prikritega opazovanja brez udeležbe je bilo po vnaprej pripravljenem opazovalnem listu skupno opazovanih 48 uličnih obratov s hrano, kar je glede na podatke poslovnega registra Slovenije 23 % od vseh registriranih premičnih in/ali začasnih obratov v Sloveniji. Rezultati: Delovno mesto, kjer se rokuje z živili, je bilo v 35 % primerov opremljeno z umivalnikom za higieno rok. Opremljena so bila vsa premična prodajna vozila in kioski, medtem ko so bile stojnice z umivalnikom, nameščenim neposredno na delovnem mestu, kamor potrošniki ne vstopajo, opremljene v 20 %. Nizka skupna povprečna ocena kriterija higiene rok 3,1 kaže na njeno nedosledno izvajanje. 40 % zaposlenih, od tega 63 % moških in 37 % žensk, je pri pripravi hrane uporabljalo rokavice za enkratno uporabo. Nepravilna uporaba je bila ugotovljena pri 90 %. Rokavic niso uporabljali za točno določeno opravilo in kratek čas. Razprava in zaključek: Glede na vrsto premičnega in/ali začasnega obrata je bilo več neskladnosti, ugotovljenih pri stojnicah, medtem ko so premična prodajna vozila in kioski higiensko-tehnične zahteve skoraj v celoti izpolnjevali. Med večje neskladnosti, ki so bile ugotovljene, sodijo nepravilno ravnanje z odpadki v 85 %, pomanjkanje osnovne infrastrukture za oskrbo s hladno in toplo pitno vodo v 67 %, neustrezna zaščita svetil pred raztrosom delcev stekla v živilo v 85 %, neustrezno ločena delovna površina od potrošnika v 52 % in pretrgana hladna veriga v 48 %. Razlogi za neskladnosti niso le tehnične narave, temveč igra veliko vlogo t. i. človeški faktor. Odpraviti je treba že utrjene higiensko-vedenjske vzorce, kar je mogoče doseči s sistematičnimi preventivnimi in korekcijskimi pristopi, rednim usposabljanjem in stalnim aktivnim nadzorom nosilca živilske dejavnosti nad osebno higieno, ravnanjem z živili in vključevanjem zaposlenih v delovni proces.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:ulična hrana, premični in/ali začasni obrati javne prehrane, dobra higienska praksa, varnost živil, osebna higiena, prikrito opazovanje
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Organization:ZF - University College of Health Studies
Year:2019
COBISS.SI-ID:5587307 Link is opened in a new window
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Downloads:113
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Evaluation of technical requirements and hygienic practices of street food vendors : master thesis
Abstract:
Introduction: The statistical data of the European Food Safety Authority shows that street food vendors are also a cause of food-related outbreaks of contagious diseases. In 2018, the EFSA in collaboration with the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control issued a 2017 yearly report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents, and food-borne outbreaks. Nine outbreaks were connected to street food vendors in the year 2017 inside the EU. That is 4.5-times more than in 2016 and 2013. The occurrences of intestinal infectious diseases confirm that small food stands are faced with challenges when securing the safety of the food. Purpose: The aim of this master’s thesis was to evaluate the compliance of hygienic and technical standards of street food vendors in Slovenia with the requirements of the general hygienic food principals set in the Codex Alimentarius and the Regulation (EC) No. 852/2004 on food hygiene. Methods: 48 street food vendors were inspected in a direct and discrete way using an in advance prepared observation questionnaire that allowed fast evaluation. These 48 street food vendors represent 23% of all registered street food vendors in Slovenia according to the Slovenian Business Register. Results: Workplaces where food was hand-processed were equipped with a sink allowing the staff to wash their hands in 35% of cases. Street food stands had exclusive access to a sink in only 20% of cases while food trucks and kiosks had exclusive access to a sink in 100% of cases. The average score for hand hygiene was only 3.1 showing that the staff did not practice proper hand hygiene in many cases. 63% of male and 37% of female staff members worked with single-use hand gloves resulting in an overall percentage of 40%. The usage of the hand gloves was not appropriate in 90% of cases because they were not used for a specific purpose or the period of time they were used was too long. Discussion and conclusion: Depending on the type of street vendor, more inconsistencies were found amongst stands compared to mobile vendors. Most food trucks and kiosks scored very high in both hygienic and technical standards. Some of the biggest inconsistencies were improper waste management (85%), lack of basic infrastructure for providing drinkable water supply (67%), inadequate protection from scattering glass particles of light sources (85%), inadequately separated working surfaces from consumers (52%) and an inconsistent cold chain (48%). The reasons for the inconsistencies are not just of technical nature. Human factor plays a big role as well. There is a need to change the incorrect hygiene related behavior patterns. This can be achieved with a systematic approach, regular staff training, and constant active surveillance of the staff’s personal hygiene and their food handling, making sure the staff is also included in this process.

Keywords:street food, mobile vendors, good hygienic practices, food safety, personal hygiene, discrete observation

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