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Trans maščobe v materinem mleku
Kuzmanovski, Aljoša (Author), Benedik, Evgen (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Materino mleko velja za naravno in najboljšo hrano za dojenčke, saj zagotavlja vso potrebno energijo in hranila za rast in razvoj. Njegova sestava je izjemno kompleksna in se tekom dojenja spreminja. Za optimalno sestavo materinega mleka in posledično zdravje njenega otroka, je ustrezna prehrana ženske pred, predvsem pa med nosečnostjo in dojenjem, ključnega pomena. Glede na to, da se trans maščobne kisline (TMK) v materinem mleku povezuje z negativnimi učinki na zdravje, smo v naši raziskavi želeli ugotoviti, kakšen je delež TMK v mleku slovenskih mater. Hkrati nas je zanimalo, kako prehrana mater med nosečnostjo in dojenjem vpliva na vsebnost in vrsto TMK v materinem mleku. S pomočjo 4-dnevnega tehtanega prehranskega dnevnika (4PD), ki so ga matere vodile med nosečnostjo in tekom dojenja, smo dobili vpogled v prehrano mater. Maščobno-kislinsko sestavo materinega mleka smo določili s plinsko kromatografijo s plamenskim ionizacijskim detektorjem (GC-FID). Analizirali smo 105 vzorcev materinega mleka. Ugotovili smo, da je bila vsebnost TMK v zrelem materinem mleku 1,15 ± 0,47 ut. % glede na vse identificirane maščobne kisline. Pri ugotavljanju, kako prehrana mater vpliva na vsebnost TMK, nismo našli povezave med količino zaužitih živil, ki vsebujejo TMK in vsebnostjo TMK v materinem mleku. Povezave nismo našli ne med nosečnostjo in ne tekom dojenja. Smo pa ugotovili povezavo med uživanjem nasičenih maščobnih kislin iz mleka in mlečnih izdelkov med nosečnostjo in dojenjem in vsebnostjo vakcenske maščobne kisline v materinem mleku. Povezava je bila statistično močnejša pri materah tekom dojenja. Neglede na to, da v naši raziskavi nismo našli povezave med količino zaužitih živil, ki vsebujejo TMK in vsebnostjo TMK v materinem mleku, svetujemo da nosečnice in doječe matere upoštevajo veljavne prehranske smernice in se izogibajo uživanju živil, ki vsebujejo TMK.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:prehrana, trans maščobe, prehrana nosečnic, prehrana matere, materino mleko, dojenje, razvoj dojenčka
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2019
Publisher:[A. Kuzmanovski]
UDC:613.953.11+618.63:543.635.35
COBISS.SI-ID:5028216 Link is opened in a new window
Views:302
Downloads:193
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Trans fatty acids in breast milk
Abstract:
Breast milk is the most natural and perfect nutrition for infants. It provides all the energy and nutrients that are required for optimal growth and development. The composition of breast milk is very complex and changes during lactation. For the optimal composition and therefore health of the infant, adequate nutrition of mothers before and especially during pregnancy and lactation is very important. Because trans fatty acids (TFA) in breast milk are related to many undesirable health outcomes, we investigated the amount of TFA in breast milk of Slovenian mothers. We also wanted to see how dietary intake of mothers during pregnancy and lactation impacts the content of TFA in breast milk. We got the insight into their nutrition by evaluating their 4-day weighted dietary records (4PD) that they recorded during pregnancy and during lactation. The fatty acid composition of breast milk was analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). 105 samples of breast milk were analyzed. The amount of TFA we detected in breast milk was 1,15 ± 0,47 wt. % of all identified fatty acids. When investigating the correlation between food intake and TFA in breast milk, we found no correlation between the amount of food containing TFA that mothers consumed during pregnancy and during lactation and the content of TFA in their breast milk. Although a positive correlation between the intake of saturated fatty acids from milk and milk products and the content of vaccenic acid in breast milk was found. The correlation was stronger in mothers during lactation. Even though we haven't found any correlation between the amount of food containing TFA that mothers consumed during pregnancy and lactation and the content of TFA in their breast milk we advise mothers to follow dietary recommendations and avoid consumption of TFA.

Keywords:nutrition, trans fats, pregnant woman's diet, mother's diet, breast milk, breastfeeding, infant development

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