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Vpliv telesne vadbe na gibalne sposobnosti dečka z motnjo avtističnega spektra in težjo motnjo v duševnem razvoju : magistrsko delo
ID Pišek, Urša (Author), ID Karpljuk, Damir (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, ID Hadžić, Vedran (Co-mentor)

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Abstract
»Motnje avtističnega spektra predstavljajo zelo kompleksen pojem motenj, ki vplivajo na veliko področij razvoja in onemogočajo normalen razvoj in funkcijo otroka. Vsak otrok z avtističnimi motnjami je drugačen, različen, unikaten in zdravila za tovrstno motnjo še ni« (Pišek, 2017). V magistrskem delu smo želeli ugotoviti vpliv telesne vadbe na gibalne sposobnosti dečka z motnjo avtističnega spektra in težjo duševno motnjo. Osnovni cilj magistrskega dela je bil raziskati kratkoročen vpliv telesne vadbe na motorične sposobnosti dečka z motnjo avtističnega spektra in težje motnje v duševnem razvoju. Izvedli smo študijo primera 10-letnega dečka z motnjo avtističnega spektra in težjo duševno motnjo. Individualno vadbo smo izvajali 1x/ tedensko v šolski telovadnici, vadba je bila strukturirana in načrtovana. Od meseca novembra 2016 do maja 2017 smo izvedli 25 vadb, ki so trajale približno 60 minut. Meritve smo izvedli 2 x, v mesecu novembru in mesecu maju. Za merjenje napredka smo uporabili direktno sprotno opazovanje z videoposnetkom, ki smo ga naredili v sklopu prvih vadb (peta vadbena enota) in na koncu (štiriindvajseta vadbena enota). Na posamezne gibalne elemente smo se osredotočili z rednim dnevniškim zapisom, ki smo ga izpolnili po vsaki vadbeni enoti. Pet različnih področij, ki so se nanašale na funkcioniranje in dnevno življenje smo preverili z modificirano lestvico sposobnosti za otroke z motnjo avtističnega spektra. Grobo motoriko smo preverili s testom grobe motorike TGMD-2. Po analizi videoposnetkov in direktnega opazovanja smo se osredotočili na opazovanje izboljšanja gibalnih sposobnosti, socialne interakcije, vedenja in komunikacije. Deček je bil na vadbi motiviran, dlje časa je vzpostavljal očesni stik in uporabljal več besedne komunikacije. Pri metodi dnevniškega zapisa smo se bolj osredotočili na gibalne naloge, ki jih je bolj suvereno izvajal iz ure v uro. Največji napredek je bil viden v koordinaciji in ravnotežju. Po oceni dveh kineziologov, razredničarke in staršev se je pokazalo izboljšanje tudi na področju igre in socialnih veščin, koordinacije, dnevnih aktivnosti in samoizražanja, kar smo merili s pomočjo modificirane lestvice za otroke z motnjami avtističnega spektra. Deček je v skupnih odstotkih lestvice motenj avtističnega spektra napredoval iz začetnih (42 %) na končnih (77,5 %). Največji napredek je pokazal na področju samoizražanja, ki je bilo v začetku zelo oteženo. S tem smo ugotovili, da se je individualna telesna vadba pri izbranem vzorcu izkazala kot učinkovita metoda za izboljšanje primarnih in sekundarnih motenj otroka z motnjo avtističnega spektra in težjo duševno motnjo. Pri meritvi grobe motorike s testom TGMD-2 je deček napredoval v primerjavi s prvim ocenjevanjem za 60 %.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:telesna vadba, gibalne sposobnosti, motnja avtističnega spektra, težje duševne motnje
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Typology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:FŠ - Faculty of Sport
Year:2018
COBISS.SI-ID:5446321 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:28.10.2018
Views:675
Downloads:301
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:The influence of physical activities on the movement abilties of a boy with autistic spectrum disorder and severe mental disorder
Abstract:
»Autistic spectrum disorder represents a very complex concept of disorders that affect many areas of development and prevent the normal development and function of the child. Every child with autism disorder is different, unique and a cure for this disorder does not exist yet« (Pišek, 2017). In the master's thesis, we wanted to determine the effect of physical activities on the movement abilities of a boy with an autistic spectrum disorder and severe mental disorder. The main goal of the master's thesis was to investigate the short-term effect of exercise on motor skills of a boy with an autistic spectrum disorder and a severe mental disorder. We conducted a case study of a 10-year-old boy with an autistic spectrum disorder and a severe mental disorder. Individual exercise was performed once a week at the school gym, the training was structured and planned. From November 2016 to May 2017 we carried out 25 exercises that lasted about 60 minutes. Measurements were carried out twice, in November and May. To measure progress, we used a direct real-time observation with a video that we made in the first exercise (fifth exercise unit) and at the end (the twenty-fourth exercise unit). With a regular diary which was filled in for each exercise unit we focused on individual movement elements. Five different areas related to functioning and daily life were checked with a modified scale of abilities for children with autistic spectrum disorder. Gross motor elements were checked by a gross motor test TGMD-2. After analyzing videos and direct observation, we focused on observing the improvement of physical abilities, social interaction, behavior and communication. The boy was motivated during the exercise, the eye contact, he established, lasted longer and he used multiple word communication. Regarding the diary, we focused more on the movement tasks, which he carried out more appropriately from hour to hour. The greatest progress was seen in coordination and balance. According to the assessment of two kinesiologists, classmates and parents, improvement has also been shown in the field of play and social skills, coordination, daily activities and self-expression, which was measured with a modified scale for children with autism spectrum disorders. The boy progressed from the initial (42%) to the final (77.5%) in the modified scale for children with autism spectrum disorder. The greatest progress was seen in the field of self-expression, which was very difficult in the beginning. With this, we found that individual exercise in the selected sample was proved to be an effective method for improving primary and secondary disorders of the child with autism spectrum disorder and severe mental disorder. When measuring the gross motor elements with the TGMD-2 test, the boy advanced in comparison with the first assessment by 60%.

Keywords:physical activities, movement abilities, autistic spectrum disorder, severe mental disorders

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