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Prehranski vnos in sestava telesa otrok zaključnih razredov naključno izbranih slovenskih osnovnih šol
Ogorevc, Nina (Author), Benedik, Evgen (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Zdrava in uravnotežena prehrana je zelo pomembna v vseh obdobjih življenja, še posebej v obdobju odraščanja. Namen magistrskega dela je bil ovrednotiti prehranski vnos in sestavo telesa učencev, starih od 13–15 let (9. razred OŠ) na petih različnih osnovnih šolah v Sloveniji. Raziskavo smo pričeli na začetku šolskega leta 2017/18. Na roditeljskih sestankih smo starše seznanili z raziskavo, jim razložili potek dela in jih povabili k sodelovanju. Za sodelovanje se je odločilo 63 staršev oziroma njihovih otrok (34 fantov in 29 deklet). Povprečna starost učencev je bila 13,7 let, povprečna starost učenk pa 13,8. Z metodo vprašalnika o pogostosti uživanja živil smo pridobili podatke o njihovih prehranjevalnih navadah, količinah zaužitih živil, energijskem vnosu in vnosu drugih makro- in mikrohranil. Podatke o sestavi telesa (telesna višina, masa in kožna guba nadlahti) smo pridobili iz športnovzgojnih kartonov. Dodatno smo izračunali še delež telesne maščobe. Na našem vzorcu otrok je statistično značilno, da otroci v Prekmurju zaužijejo manj natrija (p = 0,04) in posledično manj soli ter manj sladkorja (p = 0,038) kot otroci iz ostalih delov Slovenije. Med učenci v Prekmurju in učenci v ostalih delih Slovenije ni razlike v indeksu telesne mase (p = 0,573) in deležu telesne maščobe (p = 0,585). Povprečen energijski vnos ni ustrezal Referenčnim vrednostim za vnos hranil (fantje 2600 kcal/dan, dekleta 2200 kcal/dan, PAL = 1,6), saj je bil pri fantih (2180 kcal/dan) in dekletih (1808 kcal/dan) premajhen. Vnos ogljikovih hidratov in prehranskih vlaknin je bil premajhen. Vnos nasičenih maščobnih kislin je bil glede na priporočila ustrezen, vnos enkrat in večkrat nenasičenih maščobnih kislin pa premajhen. Učenci v povprečju ne zaužijejo dovolj vitamina A in D ter mineralov kalcija, joda in magnezija, zaužijejo pa dovolj vitamina B9 in vitamina C.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:prehrana, adolescenca, otroci, mladostniki, sestava telesa, prehranski vnos, osnovna šola, makrohranila, mikrohranila, indeks telesne mase, delež telesne maščobe
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2018
Publisher:[N. Ogorevc]
UDC:613.2-053.5(497.4)
COBISS.SI-ID:4967032 This link opens in a new window
Views:4013
Downloads:605
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Dietary intake and body composition of children in year 9 of randomly selected Slovenian primary schools
Abstract:
A healthy and balanced diet is very important at all stages of life, but specially in adolescence. The purpose of this master's thesis was to evaluate dietary intake and body composition of adolescents (13 to 15 years old) at five different Slovenian primary schools. Our research started at the beggining of school year 2017/18. At PTA meetings, parents were briefed on the research and they were invited to participate; 63 parents and their children (34 boys and 29 girls) decided to take part in the survey. The average age of boys was 13.7 and the average age of girls was 13.8. We obtained the information on eating habits, amounts of food, energy intakes and intakes of other macro and micro nutrients by using food frequency and socio-demographic questionnaires. Body composition data (body height, weight and triceps skinfold) were collected in schools from sport-educational charts. Additionally, we calculated body fat percentage. In our sample of children, it is statistically significant that children in Prekmurje region consume less sodium (p = 0.04) and thus also less salt and less sugar (0.038) than children from other parts of Slovenia. There was no significant difference between the BMI (p = 0.573) and the BFP (p = 0,585) of adolescents in Prekmurje region compared to adolescents in other parts of Slovenia. The average energy intake did not meet the Reference values for nutrients intake (boys 2600 kcal/day, girls 2200 kcal/day, PAL = 1.6), as it was too low for both boys and girls. The intake of carbohydrates and dietary fibres was too low. In light of the recommendations, the intake of saturated fatty acids was satisfactory and the intake of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids was too low. The analysis of micronutrients showed that adolescents had inadequate intakes of vitamins A and D, calcium, iodine and magnesium, but the intake of vitamins B9 and C was adequate.

Keywords:nutrition, adolescence, children, adolescents, body composition, dietary intake, primary school, macronutrients, micronutrients, body mass index, body fat percentage

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