Despite all of its unusualness, myths always carry some rational truth about the world and our existence, so it is not surprising that the tradition of the Ancient Greek myths has been preserved until this day. Throughout the history, the mythical subject was often studied and interpreted in relation to the current time period. Through it, we still look for the foundation of our own existence. The thesis attempts to test, through the various interpretations of the myth of Sisyphus, the relevance of this myth and its suitability for the modern man and his time. In doing so, the focus is on Camus's collection of philosophical essays The Myth of Sisyphus(1942), where the emphasis of questioning our own conscience gives birth to the feeling of the absurd. Absurdity, as a result of identifying discrepancies between the man and the world, creates or rather develops the so called absurd man. Since Camus's literary creation is, in its entireness, a reflection of his philosophical thoughts, the feeling of the absurd and the idea of absurd man also enter his main dramatic work Caligula (1938).