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Problemski pouk pri vsebini domača pokrajina v 4. razredu osnovne šole : magistrsko delo
Erbus, Valerija (Author), Valenčič Zuljan, Milena (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, Hergan, Irena (Co-mentor)

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/id/eprint/5313 This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Reševanje problemov je v sodobni družbi znanja ključnega pomena. Od posameznika se v vseh življenjskih obdobjih pričakuje, da ustvarja nekaj novega, kar je mogoče le z reševanjem problemov, ki ponujajo neznane in nove rešitve. Problemski pouk tako postaja nujnost sodobne šole. Posameznike je potrebno naučiti prepoznati, identificirati, razčleniti in rešiti probleme. V teoretičnem delu magistrskega dela so opisani modeli reševanja problemov, ki so različni in vsebujejo različne stopnje. Določeni problemi imajo eno samo rešitev, veliko problemov pa je divergentne narave, zato je pri njih možno poiskati več različnih rešitev. Za kakovosten problemski pouk je ključno upoštevati učno individualizacijo in diferenciacijo, ker se učenci razlikujejo glede na zahteve reševanja problemov kot so: urejeno in sistematizirano predznanje, izkušnje z reševanjem problemov, miselna in čustvena aktivnost ter kritično, analitično in ustvarjalno mišljenje. V šolski praksi se problemski pouk najpogosteje povezuje z matematiko, naravoslovjem in jeziki, zato smo se v empiričnem delu magistrskega dela osredotočili na problemski pouk pri predmetu družba v 4. razredu osnovne šole. Izhajali smo iz neposrednih izkušenj učencev, zato smo problemski pouk izvajali pri vsebini domača pokrajina. V raziskavi smo uporabili deskriptivno in kavzalno neeksperimentalno metodo ter kvalitativni raziskovalni pristop. Izvedli smo akcijsko raziskavo. Najprej smo izvedli intervjuje z učitelji in učenci. Od učiteljev smo izvedeli kako opredeljujejo problemski pouk, kako pomemben se jim zdi, pri katerih vsebinah in kako ga izvajajo, kje vidijo prednosti ali omejitve ter kako načrtujejo in izvedejo individualizacijo. Od učencev smo izvedeli katere probleme vidijo v domači pokrajini, kakšen pouk jim je všeč, koliko so radovedni in kaj se želijo še naučiti o domači pokrajini. Z analizo intervjujev smo pridobili podatke, s katerimi smo načrtovali, izvedli in analizirali učno uro z vsebino s problemskim pristopom o domači pokrajini v 4. razredu osnovne šole. Z rezultati raziskave želimo opozoriti na nujnost problemskega pouka in predstaviti dejavnike, ki vplivajo na načrtovanje in izvedbo problemskega pouka pri učni vsebini domača pokrajina. Pri učencih smo prepoznavali različne strategije reševanja in izpostavili dejavnike, ki jih mora učitelj upoštevati, da so pri problemskem pouku aktivni in uspešni vsi učenci. Ugotovitve, usmeritve in učno pripravo lahko učitelji uporabijo v praksi.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:predmet družba, problemsko mišljenje, problemski pouk, domača pokrajina, učna individualizacija
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Year:2018
Publisher:[V. Erbus]
Number of pages:81 str.
UDC:37.091.31(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:12123209 Link is opened in a new window
Views:294
Downloads:115
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Problem-based learning during the lesson on local regions in the fourth grade of elementary school
Abstract:
Solving problems is very important in the modern knowledge-based society. Every individual is expected to create new things in every period of their life, which is only possible by solving problems, providing previously unknown and new solutions. Problem-based learning is thus becoming a necessity for modern schools. Pupils must be taught to recognize, identify, analyse and solve problems. In the theoretical part of this master’s thesis, we first describe models of solving problems, which are all different and comprise of different stages. Certain problems only have one solution. However, there are a lot of problems that are divergent in nature, which means that they have several different solutions. It is of the utmost importance to consider learning individualisation and differentiation, because pupils have different dispositions when it comes to solving problems, such as organized and systematic prior knowledge, experience in solving problems, mental and emotional activity, and critical, analytical and creative thinking. In a school environment, problem-based learning is most often part of mathematics, natural science and language classes. This is why we decided to focus on problem-solving aspect of social sciences class in the fourth grade of elementary school for the empirical part of this thesis. The basis for our research were direct experiences of pupils, so the problem-based learning took place during the lesson on local regions. We used descriptive and causal non-experimental method and qualitative research approach. We also carried out an action research. At first, we performed interviews with teachers and pupils. Teachers told us how they define problem-based learning, how important they think it is, how and in which classes they use it, what they think are the advantages and limits of this approach, and how they prepare and carry out individualisation plans. Pupils told us which problems they observed in local regions, what kind of lessons they like, how inquisitive they are, and what they wish to learn about local regions. By analysing interviews, we received data which we used to plan, perform and analyse a lesson with a problem-solving approach on local regions in the fourth grade of elementary school. With the results of this research, we wish to underline the necessity of problem-based learning and describe factors that affect planning and performance of problem-based lessons on local regions. Pupils helped us recognize different strategies of problem-solving and point out factors that teachers should take into account so that every pupil is active and successful during a problem-based lesson. Our findings, guidelines and lesson plan can be used by teachers in their everyday practice.

Keywords:primary education, action research, osnovnošolski pouk, akcijsko raziskovanje

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