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Ustvarjalno reševanje tehniških in tehnoloških problemov v 5. razredu osnovne šole : magistrsko delo
Uljančič, Irena (Author), Avsec, Stanislav (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/id/eprint/5266 This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Ustvarjalnost je precej širok pojem in jo lahko najdemo na različnih področjih, tudi v tehniki in tehnologiji. To trditev smo v magistrski nalogi dokazali s številnimi primeri izvedbe ustvarjalnega pouka. Učitelj pa je tisti, ki učencem lahko ponudi tudi drugačne načine dela oz. tehnike ustvarjalnega reševanja tehniških in tehnoloških problemov. V magistrskem delu smo podrobno opredelili ustvarjalnost na splošno. Zanimal nas je sam proces nastajanja ustvarjalne ideje in merila, ki so potrebna, da je neka ideja sploh ustvarjalna. Pri tem smo poudarili tudi njeno uporabnost, namreč ni dovolj, da posameznik samo niza ideje, če nam te ne koristijo oz. niso uporabne. Z različnih vidikov smo predstavili vpliv okolja na ustvarjalnost in ugotovili, da imajo pomembno vlogo pri spodbujanju ustvarjalnosti pri učencih tudi učitelji. V nadaljevanju smo iz različnih virov med seboj primerjali ustvarjalnost in nadarjenost, saj se pogosto pojavi napaka v razumevanju teh dveh pojmov. Podrobneje smo predstavili pomen tehniške ustvarjalnosti, ki je skozi zgodovino močno vplivala na razvoj civilizacije. Zato je pomembno, da učence že na razredni stopnji spodbujamo k ustvarjalnemu mišljenju. V drugem delu magistrske naloge smo z vprašalnikom Tehnika in jaz anketirali 109 učencev 5. razreda osnovne šole, saj smo želeli ugotoviti, kakšen je njihov odnos do predmeta tehnika in tehnologija (v okviru predmeta naravoslovje in tehnika). Prišli smo do ugotovitev, da so učenci najvišji rezultat na ocenjevalni lestvici od 1 do 5 dosegli pri zavedanju, da je tehnika pomembna za življenje (M = 3,87), znanje, ki ga pridobijo, pa je koristno (M = 4,03). Po drugi strani pa so v povprečju M = 3,30 ocenili, da je tehnika zahtevna. Za namen poklicne usmeritve v tehniški poklic pa so v povprečju obkrožili M = 2,57. Večina vprašanih je odgovorila, da pri pouku tehnike ne bi nič spremenili, pogosti odgovori, med drugimi, pa so tudi, da si učenci želijo več zanimivih izdelkov, manj pisanja in nemira. Delo pa je nekaterim celo pretežko. Pri istem vzorcu smo preverjali tudi učinek ustvarjalnega reševanja tehniških in tehnoloških problemov, pri tem pa smo učence razdelili na eksperimentalno in kontrolno skupino. Obe skupini sta rešili predtest in posttest ustvarjalnosti, le da je bila eksperimentalna skupina med obema testoma deležna ustvarjalnih delavnic. Rezultati pri ponovnem reševanju posttesta v eksperimentalni skupini so pokazali statistično pomembne razlike od predtesta. Učenci pa so v povprečju na posttestu zbrali 4,76 točke več kot na predtestu. Izračunali smo tudi učinek delavnic v eksperimentalni skupini v primerjavi s tradicionalnim poukom in ugotovili, da je ta srednje velik (Cohen d = 0,65). Model se je izkazal kot primeren za izobraževalno delo in omogoča enakomeren napredek, gledano tudi po spolu (α > 0,05).

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:tehniška ustvarjalnost, tehnike ustvarjalnega mišljenja, odnos do tehnike, test ustvarjalnosti
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Year:2018
Publisher:[I. Uljančič]
Number of pages:80 str.
UDC:62:373.3(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:12108873 Link is opened in a new window
Views:84
Downloads:45
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Creative problem solving of technical and technological issues in fifth grade of elementary school
Abstract:
Creativity is a rather broad concept, which can be found in several areas, including technical courses and technology. The thesis confirms this statement with several examples of implementation of creative lessons. The teacher is the person, who can offer their students alternative approaches or techniques of creative problem solving of technical and technological issues. The thesis introduces a general and detailed overview of creativity; the process of creating a creative idea and the standards, which are necessary to establish, if an idea is in fact creative. The usefulness of an idea is also important – it is insufficient if an individual only suggests ideas, which are not useful or cannot be implemented. The thesis introduces the effects of the environment to creativity from various perspectives; the findings suggest the teachers play an important part in encouraging creativity. The following part includes a comparison between creativity and talent by reviewing various sources to avoid a very often mistake in understanding these two terms. The importance of technical creativity is also discussed in detail, since it has strongly influenced the historical development of civilisation. It is very important to encourage the students to think creatively in the first grades of the elementary education. The second part of the thesis presents a survey Technical Course and I (Tehnika in jaz), which was filled out by 109 students in the fifth grade of an elementary school. The aim of the survey is to learn about their relationship to the technical and technological course (within the subjects of “Natural Sciences” and “Technical Course”). The findings suggest the students reached the highest results on the scale from 1 to 5 in the survey part of being aware technical course is important in their lives (M=3.87), and the knowledge they receive is useful (M=4.03). On the other hand, the students answered in average M=3.30 they believe technical course is demanding. The students answered in average M=2.57 when asked if they have any intention of continuing their education in the course of a technical profession. Most of the participants answered they would not introduce changes to their technical course, while the most often answers, among others, included the students wish for more interesting products, less note taking and less disorder. Some have expressed they find it too demanding. The same sample of students were also tested for the effect of the creative problem solving of technical and technological issues, and the students were divided into an experimental and control groups. Both groups were given a pre-test and a post-test of creativity, while the experimental group participated in creative workshops between the tests. The results of the post-test in the experimental group have shown important differences to the pre-test. In average the students gathered 4.76 points higher on the post-test than on the pre-test. The effect of the workshops in the experimental group in comparison with the traditional course was also monitored and concluded it is of medium size (Cohen d=0.65). The model has been recognised as suitable for educational work and enables an even development considering the gender as well (α > 0.05).

Keywords:engineering, primary education, tehnika, osnovnošolski pouk

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