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Zagotavljanje prve pomoči v osnovnih šolah : magistrsko delo
Lozić, Amela (Author), Kovačič, Uroš (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, Slabe, Damjan (Co-mentor)

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Abstract
Uvod: Poleg doma predstavlja šola drugo najpomembnejše okolje v otrokovem življenju. Poškodbe, do katerih pride najpogosteje v šoli in na šolskih igriščih, so glavni vzrok smrti otrok. Če pride do nenadnih zdravstvenih težav v šolah, so učitelji tisti, ki so praviloma prvi ob otroku. Kljub temu, da so učitelji z učencem ves čas med poukom in so za dajanje prve pomoči odgovorni kot vsak državljan, tekom poklicnega izobraževanja znanja prve pomoči ne pridobijo. Zagotavljanje prve pomoči v osnovnih šolah ni zakonsko urejeno v enem samem pravnem aktu, ampak je opredeljeno znotraj različnih zakonov, pravilnikov in odločb. Namen: Ugotoviti, kako je zagotovljeno dajanje prve pomoči v osnovnih šolah v Sloveniji, in raziskati, kakšno je znanje prve pomoči osnovnošolskih učiteljev. Zanimalo nas je tudi kakšno je mnenje učiteljev in ravnateljev glede obnavljanja znanja. Metode dela: V raziskovalnem delu smo po pregledu domače in tuje literature uporabili triangulacijsko metodo raziskovanja, pri čemer smo sočasno uporabili anonimni anketni vprašalnik, intervju in delno strukturirane razgovore v fokusnih skupinah. Zbiranje podatkov v okviru deskriptivne metode raziskovanja je potekalo z anonimnim anketnim vprašalnikom v spletnem programu. Sočasno z anketiranjem smo izvedli delno strukturirane in usmerjene razgovore v okviru fokusnih skupin z osnovnošolskimi učitelji in intervjuje z ravnatelji naključno izbranih osnovnih šol po Sloveniji. Rezultati: Anketni vprašalnik je v celoti izpolnilo 192 učiteljev, v fokusnih skupinah je sodelovalo 24 učiteljev in opravili smo 10 intervjujev z ravnatelji. Pomanjkljivo teoretično znanje učiteljev se je pokazalo pri življenjsko ogrožajočih stanjih, kar je bilo značilno predvsem za učitelje, ki poučujejo na predmetni stopnji. Slednji so pokazali statistično značilno slabše znanje v primerjavi z učitelji, ki poučujejo na razredni stopnji kar pri štirih od skupno devetih vprašanj o prvi pomoči. Učitelji v fokusnih skupinah so po večini svoje znanje ocenili kot slabo, medtem ko so ravnatelji menili, da so njihovi zaposleni dobro usposobljeni. V splošnem so sodelujoči v raziskavi menili, da so v šoli vsi odgovorni za dajanje prve pomoči, vendar so večjo odgovornost pripisovali športnim pedagogom in posebej usposobljenim učiteljem. Ravnatelji in učitelji so izrazili potrebo po več usposabljanj s področja prve pomoči, predvsem praktično usmerjenih. Med najpomembnejšimi ovirami za redno obnavljanje znanja prve pomoči so omenjali organizacijske ovire izvedbe, čas in finance. Razprava in zaključek: Boljše teoretično znanje so pokazali učitelji, ki poučujejo na razredni stopnji, kar bi lahko bila posledica njihove bolj vzgojno usmerjene vloge v zgodnji fazi izobraževalnega sistema. Teoretično znanje je le osnovni pogoj pri dajanju prve pomoči, ključnega pomena so praktične veščine in obnavljanje znanja skladno s smernicami, ki se spreminjajo. Večina učiteljev je mnenja, da so učitelji športne vzgoje najodgovornejši za dajanje prve pomoči. Ti imajo med pridobivanjem svoje izobrazbe edini izmed učiteljev predmet, kjer obravnavajo prvo pomoč. Letos so na nacionalni ravni izdali smernice za ukrepanje ob nujnih primerih v osnovni šoli, ki jih bo v naslednjih letih treba ustrezno uveljaviti. Na podlagi naših rezultatov menimo, da bo treba skrbeti tudi za redno obnavljanje, saj se znanje prve pomoči hitro pozablja.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:prva pomoč, osnovna šola, učitelji, otroci, poškodbe, nenadno oboleli
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Organization:ZF - University College of Health Studies
Year:2018
COBISS.SI-ID:5505643 Link is opened in a new window
Views:846
Downloads:235
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Providing first aid in primary schools : master thesis
Abstract:
Introduction: Besides home, school is the second most important environment in a child’s life. Injuries that occur most often at school and school playgrounds are the leading cause of child deaths. If sudden health problems happen at school, teachers are the first to provide first-aid. Providing first-aid in primary schools is not regulated by one single legal act, but it is defined within various laws and regulations. Despite the fact that teachers are with students all time during classes and are as well as any other citizen responsible for giving first-aid, they do not receive the education for it. Purpose: To determine how first-aid is provided in primary schools in Slovenia; to find out how much primary teachers know about giving first-aid and the opinion of teachers and headmasters on renewing their knowledge about it. Methods: In the research part of the thesis, after having examined in detail some Slovene and foreign literature, we used a triangulation method of research along with an anonymous questionnaire, interview and partially structured debates in focus groups. Data collection in the framework of the descriptive method of research was carried out using an anonymous questionnaire in the online program. At the same time, we also conducted partially structured and focused interviews within focus groups of primary school teachers as well as interviews with primary school headmasters around Slovenia. Results: The questionnaire was fully completed by 192 teachers, 24 teachers participated in focus groups and 10 headmasters were interviewed. Insufficient theoretical knowledge of teachers was revealed when it comes to life-threatening situations, which was especially the case for those teachers who teach classes from the sixth to the ninth grade. They showed statistically less knowledge in four of the nine questions about first-aid in comparison with teachers who teach classes from the first to the fifth grade. Teachers in focus groups considered their knowledge as poor, while their headmasters mostly believe their employees are well trained in giving first-aid. In general, all the participants in the survey agreed that all employees should be responsible for giving first-aid, but still felt that more responsibility should be attributed to PE teachers and some other qualified teachers. Headmasters as well as teachers would like more first-aid training, especially practical one. The most important obstacles to organize some practical first-aid training are the lack of time and money. Discussion and conclusion: Better theoretical knowledge was shown by teachers who teach classes from the first to the fifth grade. This could be a result of their educational focused role in the early stage of educational system. Theoretical knowledge is only a basic prerequisite for giving first-aid, while practical skills are of key importance as well as renewing knowledge in accordance with constantly changing guidelines. Most of the teachers have an opinion that PE teachers are the most responsible to be able to give first-aid. During their professional education, they are the only group of teachers who has a specific modul about first-aid. This year, at the national level, guidelines for emergency response were issued and they will have to be properly implemented in primary schools in the following years. On the basis of our results we think that it will be necessary to take care of renewing first-aid knowledge as people tend to forget it very quickly.

Keywords:first-aid, primary school, teachers, children, injuries, suddenly ill

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