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Imunoterapija alergijskih bolezni
Vogrinčič, Valentin (Author), Narat, Mojca (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
V industrijsko razvitem okolju alergije prizadanejo visok odstotek populacije, zato so pomembni pristopi k zdravljenju, ki poleg lajšanja simptomov spremenijo tudi imunski odziv in zavrejo napredovanje alergijskih bolezni. Te nastanejo kot nepravilen odziv na sicer neškodljive okoljske antigene. Takšen terapevtski in preventivni učinek ima imunoterapija. Imunoterapija zajema postopne in nadzorovane stike z alergenom v nizkih odmerkih, ki ne sprožijo sistemskih alergijskih reakcij in so terapevtsko učinkoviti. Pri tem se prilagodi imunski odziv k toleranci na alergen na vseh nivojih alergijskega odziva od začetnega odziva antigen predstavitvenih celic, limfocitov B in T do končnega odziva mastocitov in bazofilcev na alergen z zmanjšanjem njihove občutljivosti. Vrsta kliničnih študij potrjuje učinkovitost imunoterapije kratkoročno na nivoju sezonskih zmanjšanj simptomov in dolgoročno na nivoju imunskih sprememb več let po koncu terapije. Pri klasični imunoterapiji se uporabljajo ekstrakti alergenov, vse bolj pa se uveljavljajo rekombinatni alergeni in hipoalergeni zaradi nizke učinkovitosti in neželenih reakcij, ki se pojavijo med imunoterapijo z ekstrakti. Cilj rekombinantnih pristopov z genskim inženiringom je zmanjšanje alergenosti molekul in ohranitev ali celo povečanje njihove imunogenosti. Alergenost se zmanjša z kemijsko modifikacijo, polimerizacijo, fragmentacijo ali rekombinantno fuzijo alergenov, saj pride so spremembe konformacijskih oblik in tako tudi motenj v strukturi IgE epitopov alergenov.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:biotehnologija, preobčutljivostne reakcije tipa I, imunoterapija, hipoalergeni, peptidi alergena
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2018
Publisher:[V. Vogrinčič]
UDC:606:57.083:602.68(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:9065849 This link opens in a new window
Views:668
Downloads:418
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Immunotherapy of allergic diseases
Abstract:
Because in the industrialized world allergies afflict a high percentage of the population approaches to treatment are necessary that besides alleviating the symptoms also modify the immune reaction and curb the progression of allergies. Such therapeutic and preventive effect is a feature of immunotherapy. It is performed by repeated and controlled applications of the allergen in low doses without the risk for systemic reactions but with satisfactory therapeutic efficacy. Immunotherapy changes the immune reaction to tolerance to allergen on all the levels of the allergic response from the primary response of antigen presenting cells, B and T lymphocytes to the final inflammatory response of mastocytes and basophiles by reducing their sensitivity. Clinical studies confirm both the short-term efficacy associated with seasonal alleviation of symptoms and long-term efficacy based on immune changes many years after the end of therapy. Classical immnotherapy uses allergenic extracts but they are increasingly replaced by recombinant allergens and hypoallergens beacuse of low efficacy and risk of adverse reactions in treatment with extracts. Recombinant approaches with genetic engineering facilitate the reduction of allergenicity and preservation of immunogenicity of molecules. Alleregnicity can be reduced by chemical modification, allergen polymerization, fragmentation or recomabinant fusion with conformational distortion of IgE binding epitopes.

Keywords:biotechnology, type I hypresensitivity reactions, immunotherapy, hypoallergens, allergen peptides

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