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Koevolucija bakterij in bakteriofagov v bioreaktorju.
Filipič, Monika (Author), Podgornik, Aleš (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Bakteriofagi so, kot ostali virusi, obligatorni intracelularni paraziti, ki okužijo in se razmnožuje le v bakterijski celici. Tako bakterije kot bakteriofagi se spreminjajo – bakterije postajajo odporne na bakteriofage, bakteriofagi pa spreminjajo infektivnost, da lahko napadajo odporne bakterije. Temu procesu pravimo koevolucija in se odraža v genotipskih in fenotipskih spremembah. Poznani sta dve vrsti koevolucije: »arms race dinamika« in nihajoča selekcijska dinamika. Bakterije imajo več mehanizmov, ki omogočajo odpornost. Lahko preprečijo pritrjevanje bakteriofagov na bakterijsko celico, preprečijo vstop bakteriofagne DNK v gostiteljsko celico, lahko režejo in uničijo bakteriofagne nukleinske kisline ali pa sprožijo celično smrt, ko jih bakteriofag okuži. Bakteriofag se odzove na spremembe in poveča infektivnost. Najboljši pogoji za koevoluvcijo se ustvarijo pri kontinuirnem procesu, saj traja dalj časa in so bakterije in bakteriofagi nenehno izpostavljeni eden drugemu, kar omogoči velik evolucijski pritisk. Na koevolucijo ima vpliv prisotnost oziroma odsotnost plazmidov v bakteriji, hitrost bakterijskih mutacij, mešanje in stresanje gojene populacije, migracije bakterij in bakteriofagov ter abiotski dejavniki, npr. razpoložljivost virov in nihanje temperature. Proces koevolucije se izkorišča tudi pri bakteriofagni terapiji.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:biotehnologija, koevolucija, bakteriofagi, bakterije, kemostat, rezistenca, bakteriofagna terapija
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2018
Publisher:[M. Filipič]
UDC:602.3/.4:578.347(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:9054841 Link is opened in a new window
Views:429
Downloads:163
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Coevolution of bacteria and bacteriophage in bioreactor
Abstract:
Bacteriophages or phage are, like other viruses, obligate intracellular parasites which infect and replicate within bacterial cells. Bacteria and phages are changing – bacteria can evolve resistance to phage attack and defend themselves against phage infections and phage can increase infectivity against bacteria. This process is called coevolution and causes genetic and phenotypic changes. We know two types of coevolution: arms race dynamic and fluctuating selective dynamic. Bacteria have evolved a number of defense mechanisms against phages, including prevention of phage adsorbtion, prevention of phage DNA entry, cutting phage nucleic acid or initiation of cell death upon infection. Phages have been known to evolve mechanisms to evade bacteria defence and increase infectivity. Continuous processes have the best conditions for coevolution because bacteria and phage are in interaction long enough to start the process of coevolution. Plasmids, mutations rates, shaking growth culture, bacterial and phage migrations and abiotic factors like fluctuating environment affect the bacteria-phage coevolution. Bacteria-phage coevolution process is also exploited at bacteriophage therapy.

Keywords:biotechnology, coevolution, phage, bacteria, chemostat, resistance, phage therapy

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