In the present work, the influence of mechanical and laser structuring of copper samples on enhanced nucleate pool boiling heat transfer is investigated. Samples were either mechanically treated using sanding or sandblasting or laser structured to produce microcavities or a surface oxide layer; microchannels were machined onto one sample. Characteristics of surfaces were determined through the use of topography measurement, SEM imaging, EDS surface chemical composition analysis and contact angle measurement. A pool boiling experimental setup of our own design was used to determine boiling heat transfer characteristics of structured surfaces during saturated boiling of twice-distilled water. Boiling curves were recorded before and after the first onset of critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficients were calculated. The following critical heat flux was reached: up to 1220 kW m-2 on mechanically treated surfaces, up to 1580 kW m-2 on laser treated surfaces and 1897 kW m-2 on the surface with microchannels; this represents 46 %, 89% and 127 % improvement in regards to the reference surface, respectively. Heat transfer coefficient improvement ranged from 159 % (mechanical treatment) and 174 % (laser treatment) to 296 % (microchannels). It was determined that laser structuring produces stable surfaces with minimal deviation between consecutive measurements. Additionally, a change of surface chemistry was recorded after the first onset of the critical heat flux, which had a large influence on boiling heat transfer.