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Stigmatizacija pacientov z motnjami hranjenja : diplomsko delo
Oblak, Ema (Author), Lapanja, Aljoša (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, Peterka Novak, Jožica (Co-mentor)

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Abstract
Uvod: Živimo v družbi, ki močno poudarja določene telesne ideale, vitkost je namreč postala zapoved, debelost pa stigma. Posledično so motnje hranjenja postale velik družbeni problem, k čemur pomembno prispeva tudi vpliv medijev. Dejstvo, da se motnje hranjenja uvrščajo med duševne motnje, še dodatno povečuje očitajoče, diskriminatorno in stigmatizirajoče vedenje družbe do trpečih posameznikov, kar negativno vpliva na potek zdravljenja. Medicinska sestra ima moč, da s svojim znanjem, komunikacijskimi sposobnostmi in dobrim zgledom vpliva na širšo družbo ter spremeni njen pogled na paciente z motnjami hranjenja. Namen: Namen diplomskega dela je predstaviti stigmatizacijo na področju duševnega zdravja in opredeliti vpliv, ki ga ima na paciente z motnjami hranjenja, ter raziskati vlogo medicinske sestre pri destigmatizaciji. Metode: V diplomskem delu smo uporabili deskriptivno metodo s sistematičnim pregledom znanstvene in strokovne literature. Uporabljena je bila literatura v slovenskem in angleškem jeziku, izdana med letoma 2007 in 2018. Pri iskanju so bile uporabljene ključne besede zdravstvena nega/nursing care, psihiatrija/psychiatry, destigmatizacija/destigmatization, diskriminacija/discrimination, tabu/taboo v podatkovnih bazah COBIBI.SI, CINAHL in Medline. Uporabljeni so bili le članki s prosto dostopnim besedilom, ki so bili ovrednoteni po šeststopenjski lestvici glede na moč dokazov. Rezultati: Stigmatizacija obstaja že od začetka človeštva, saj je dominantni del družbe določene lastnosti označil za nesprejemljive. Takšno razširjeno mišljenje v družbi najbolj občutijo pacienti z duševnimi motnjami, predvsem pacienti z motnjami hranjenja, saj je vzrok stigme fizično izražen. Stigmatizacija vodi v socialni odmik in izolacijo, še bolj zaskrbljujoče pa je, da zaradi strahu pred stigmo prizadeti posamezniki zavračajo strokovno pomoč in se izogibajo zdravljenju, kar še povečuje simptome bolezni in negativno vpliva na sam potek zdravljenja ter rehabilitacije. Razprava in zaključek: Zaradi porasta stigmatizacije motenj hranjenja je ključnega pomena aktivno delovanje medicinskih sester v boju proti stigmi. Z lastnim ravnanjem moramo biti zgled tako drugim zdravstvenim delavcem kot tudi širši družbi. Delovati moramo etično, spoštovati pravice pacientov ter temeljne svoboščine posameznikov in jim s tem zagotoviti enakopravno zdravstveno obravnavo. Poleg tega je ključnega pomena tudi izobraževanje širše družbe, saj bomo na ta način izkoreninili stereotipna in diskriminatorna mišljenja o pacientih, ki trpijo za duševnimi motnjami.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:zdravstvena nega, psihiatrija, destigmatizacija, diskriminacija, tabu
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Organization:ZF - University College of Health Studies
Year:2018
COBISS.SI-ID:5471339 Link is opened in a new window
Views:1047
Downloads:468
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Stigmatization of patients with eating disorders : diploma work
Abstract:
Introduction: We live in a society that strongly emphasizes certain body ideals, thinness has become a commandment, and obesity is a stigma. Eating disorders have become a major social problem, which is also associated with the contribution of media. The fact, that eating disorders are classified as mental disorders, further increases the discriminating, discriminatory and stigmatizing behavior of the society towards the suffering individuals. Nurses have the power to influence wider society through our knowledge, communication skills and behavior, and to change the view of society on patients with eating disorders. Purpose: The purpose of the diploma work is to present the stigmatization in the field of mental health, to define the influence it has on the patients with eating disorders and to explore the role of nurses in destigmatization process. Methods: In the writing of diploma, we used the descriptive method in which we did a systematic review of scientific and technical literature. The literature was used in Slovene and English language, issued between years of 2007 and 2018. Keywords nursing care, psychiatry, destigmatization, discrimination, taboo were used in the search on the databases COBIBI.SI, CINAHL and Medline. Only articles with freely available texts, which were evaluated on a six-stage scale based on the power of evidence, were used. Results: Stigmatization is already present since the existence of humanity, because the dominant part of society has defined certain characteristics as unacceptable. Such a widespread opinion in society is best felt by patients with mental disorders, especially those with eating disorders, because the cause of the stigma is physically expressed. Stigmatization leads to social deviation and isolation, and even more worrying is that due to fear of stigma, affected individuals refuse professional help and avoid treatment, which increases the symptoms of the disease and negatively affects the course of treatment and rehabilitation. Discussion and conclusion: Due to the increase in the stigmatization of eating disorders, the active functioning of nurses in the fight against stigma is crucial. By our own conduct, we must be an example to other health care professionals, as well as to a wider society. We must act ethically, respect the rights of patients and the fundamental freedoms of individuals and thus ensure equal treatment for them. In addition, education of a wider society is also crucial, as in this way we will eradicate stereotyped and discriminatory opinions about patients who suffer from mental disorders.

Keywords:nursing care, psychiatry, destigmatization, discrimination, taboo

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