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Vrednotenje upoštevanja principov zelene kemije pri eksperimentalnem delu v osnovni šoli metodo Zelene zvezde
Starešinič, Sandra (Author), Ferk Savec, Vesna (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/5239/ This link opens in a new window

Abstract
V skladu z učnim načrtom za kemijo je v zvezi z eksperimentalnim delom naloga učitelja učence navajati na dosledno in sistematično prepoznavanje nevarnih lastnosti snovi, njihovo odgovorno uporabo, primerno odstranjevanje odpadkov ter pravilno uporabo zaščitne opreme (Bačnik idr., 2011). Bodner (2015) predlaga, da v poučevanje kemije vključimo socio-naravoslovni kontekst, ter pri učencih razvijamo razumevanje zelene kemije z ustreznimi prilagoditvami eksperimentalnega dela (npr. uporabo reaktantov iz obnovljivih virov, izvedbo mikroeksperimentov, eksperimentiranjem v skupinah). Učitelji lahko pri pouku kemije ob upoštevanju 12 principov zelene kemije prispevamo tudi k ozaveščanju učencev za odgovorno ravnanje na področju kemijske varnosti, npr. z vrednotenjem okoljske primernosti eksperimentalnega dela ob uporabi stehiometrijskega izračuna presežnih reagentov, preučevanjem reakcijskih pogojev, preučevanjem izvedbe eksperimentalnega dela z vidika nevarnosti za okolje, zdravje ljudi in morebitnih nesreč, odpadnih nevarnih snovi, preučevanjem možnosti pretvorbe odpadnih snovi v neškodljive produkte in njihovo ponovno uporabo, sintezo derivatov in podobno (Duarte, Ribeiro in Machado, 2014; 2015). Okoljsko primernost eksperimentalnega dela lahko pri tem vizualiziramo z metriko Zeleni krog in metriko Zelena zvezda (Ribeiro, Costa in Machado, 2014), ki temeljita na vrednotenju upoštevanja 12 principov zelene kemije. V magistrskem delu sta bili uporabljeni metodi metrika Zeleni krog in metrika Zelena zvezda, ki so jo Ribeiro, Costa in Machado (2010) razvili za vrednotenje in optimizacijo eksperimentalnega dela v šoli. V magistrskem delu je bilo preučenih 30 naključno izbranih eksperimentov s področja organske kemije iz slovenskih osnovnošolskih učbeniških kompletov, ki so potrjeni za šolsko leto 2017/2018. Osredotočili smo se na poglavja organske kemije naslednjih učnih sklopov: Družina ogljikovodikov s polimeri, Kisikova družina organskih spojin in Dušikova družina organskih spojin. Rezultati kažejo, da več kot polovica preučevanih eksperimentov, učnega sklopa Dušikova družina organskih spojin, učnega načrta za kemijo v osnovni šoli, upošteva principe zelene kemije glede na metriko Zeleni krog in metriko Zelena zvezda. Rezultati nakazujejo, najmanjše upoštevanje principov zelene kemije pri preučevanih eksperimentih učnega sklopa Družina ogljikovodikov s polimeri, učnega načrta za kemijo v osnovni šoli, saj so uporabljene kemikalije, ki imajo nevarne lastnosti. Za tri izbrane primere eksperimentov so bile preučene tudi možnosti za optimizacijo izvedbe. Izhajajoč iz rezultatov magistrskega dela je smiselno spodbuditi k razmišljanju o potrebnosti optimizacije šolskega eksperimentalnega dela v skladu z zahtevami principov zelene kemije tudi v širšem merilu.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:analiza učbenikov
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Year:2018
COBISS.SI-ID:12090953 This link opens in a new window
Views:437
Downloads:110
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:The evaluation of green chemistry principles in the primary school experimental work by the use of the Green star method
Abstract:
In accordance with the Chemistry Curriculum the teachers' assignment is by the Experimental Work to accustom students in a consistent and systematic enforcement of hazardous properties of the substance responsible use of materials, appropriate waste disposal and proper use of protective equipment (Bačnik et al., 2011). Bodner (2015) suggests that we include the socio-natural context in teaching Chemistry and with appropriate adjustments to Experimental Work we develop students' understanding of Green Chemistry (eg. using reactants from renewable sources, performing microexperiments, experimentation in groups). Teachers can also contribute to raising awareness of students for responsible behavior in the field of Chemical Safety in Chemistry, taking into account 12 Principles of Green Chemistry, eg. by evaluating the environmental suitability of the Experimental Work using the stoichiometric calculation of surplus reagents, studying the reaction conditions, studying the performance of the Experimental Work in terms of environmental hazards, human health and possible accidents, waste hazardous substances, studying the possibility of converting waste materials into harmless products and their reuse, synthesis of derivatives and the like (Duarte, Ribeiro and Machado, 2014; 2015). The environmental suitability of the Experimental Work can be visualized with the Green Circle metric and the Green Star metric (Ribeiro, Costa and Machado, 2014), which are based on the Evaluation of the 12 Principles of Green Chemistry. In the Master's thesis, the Green Circle metric and the Green Star metric were used, developed by Ribeiro, Costa and Machado (2010) to evaluate and optimize Experimental Work at school. In the master's thesis, 30 randomly selected experiments in the field of organic chemistry from Slovene Primary School textbooks, which were confirmed for the school year 2017/2018, were examined. We focused on a section of organic chemistry following study groups: Family hydrocarbon polymers, Oxygen family of organic compounds and Nitrogen family of organic compounds. The results show that more than half of the studied set of experiments teaching Nitrogen family of organic compounds, Chemistry Curriculum in elementary school take into account the Principles of Green Chemistry in relation to the metric Green Circle and metric Green Star. Because of using chemicals that have hazardous properties the results indicate the minimal consideration of the Principles of Green Chemistry in the studied experiments of the study group Hydrocarbon Family with polymers, a chemistry curriculum in elementary school. Optimization options were also considered for the three selected examples of experiments. Based on the results of the master's thesis and in accordance with the requirements of the Principles of Green Chemistry it is sensible to stimulate thinking about the need to optimize school Experimental Work also on a wider scale.

Keywords:analysis of textbooks

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