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Stališča predšolskih otrok do otrok s posebnimi potrebami : magistrsko delo
Paradiž, Mojca (Author), Polak, Alenka (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, Pulec Lah, Suzana (Co-mentor)

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/id/eprint/5177 This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Predšolska vzgoja otrok s posebnimi potrebami temelji na načelih socialne integracije in inkluzije, ki poudarja pomen skupne vzgoje in bivanja otrok z značilnim razvojem in njihovih vrstnikov s posebnimi potrebami. Cilj skupne vzgoje je poleg boljšega celostnega razvoja otrok s posebnimi potrebami tudi vzgoja za razumevanje drugačnosti, razvoj strpnosti in sočutnosti otrok z značilnim razvojem. Za dosego pozitivnih vplivov sobivanja so velikega pomena pozitivna stališča okolja, ki ga v predšolskem obdobju poleg vzgojiteljev in staršev ostalih otrok predstavljajo otroci z značilnim razvojem. Stališča nastanejo tudi na podlagi izkušenj, zato je še toliko bolj pomembno, da oblikujemo pozitivne izkušnje sobivanja že v predšolskem obdobju, kjer sama organizacija predšolskih programov omogoča lažje prehajanje in srečevanje. Raziskav, ki bi vključevale preučevanje stališč predšolskih otrok do otrok s posebnimi potrebami, v slovenskem prostoru skoraj ni. Pozitivne izkušnje pa strokovni delavci lahko oblikujemo na podlagi razumevanja posebnih potreb z vidika predšolskega otroka, zato smo v magistrskem delu raziskali stališča otrok z značilnim razvojem do vrstnika z gibalno oviranostjo z vidika vseh treh sestavin stališč - kognitivne, emocionalne in vedenjske komponente. Pri raziskovanju smo si pomagali s kratkim animiranim filmom, ki je predstavil druženje deklice z značilnim razvojem in dečka z gibalno oviranostjo. Film je bil izhodišče za vprašanja ustne ankete, na katero je odgovarjalo 57 otrok obeh spolov, starih od 4 do 5 let v enem javnem vrtcu v Sloveniji. Vključeni so bili otroci z različnimi izkušnjami glede na pogostost srečevanja z vrstniki s posebnimi potrebami, ki smo jih razdelili v tri skupine: skupina otrok, ki vsakodnevno bivajo z otroki s posebnimi potrebami, skupina otrok z občasnimi stiki z otroki s posebnimi potrebami in skupina, ki se znotraj vrtca ne srečuje z otroki s posebnimi potrebami. Skušali smo ugotoviti, ali se stališča predšolskih otrok do otroka z gibalno oviranostjo v animiranem filmu, razlaga in razumevanje same gibalne oviranosti in vzrokov zanjo ter doživljanje otroka z gibalno oviranostjo, pripravljenost na sodelovanje in nudenje pomoči otroku z gibalno oviranostjo, razlikujejo glede na to, koliko se otroci v vsakdanjih situacijah srečujejo s svojimi vrstniki z različnimi posebnimi potrebami. Rezultati empirične raziskave kažejo, da večina otrok iz vseh treh skupin razume, da gibalna oviranost ni nalezljiva bolezen in da sami ne bodo postali gibalno ovirani, če se bodo družili z vrstnikom, ki ima posebne potrebe. Otroci iz vseh treh skupin tudi menijo, da je gibalna oviranost ozdravljivo in ne vseživljenjsko stanje. Menijo, da se bo gibalno oviran otrok hoje in ostalih veščin z leti lahko še priučil in jih razvil. Otroci iz vseh treh skupin se statistično pomembno razlikujejo samo v stališčih do značilnosti otroka z gibalno oviranostjo na socialnem, fizičnem in kognitivnem področju, medtem ko v stališčih do zmožnosti gibalno oviranega otroka na teh treh področjih statistično pomembnih razlik nismo potrdili. Prav tako nismo ugotovili statistično pomembnih razlik v stališčih do osebnostnih značilnosti otroka z gibalno oviranostjo, najbolj pozitivno izraženo čustveno komponento stališč pa imajo otroci iz skupine, ki se je z otroki s posebnimi potrebami srečevala le občasno. Otroci iz te skupine izkazujejo tudi večjo pripravljenost za nudenje pomoči in sodelovanje z gibalno oviranim otrokom kot pa otroci iz ostalih dveh skupin. Ugotovili smo tudi, da je več kot polovica otrok iz vseh treh skupin pripravljena nuditi pomoč otroku z gibalno oviranostjo.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:otroci s posebnimi potrebami v vrtcih, psihosocialni razvoj predšolskih otrok, socialna integracija in inkluzija
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Year:2018
Publisher:[M. Paradiž]
Number of pages:106 str.
UDC:376:373.22(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:12066377 This link opens in a new window
Views:502
Downloads:141
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Preschool children's attitudes towards special needs children
Abstract:
Preschool education of children with special needs is based on the foundation of social integration and inclusion, which emphasizes the importance of shared education and living of children with typical developing and their peers with special needs. The goal of shared education is in addition to a better integrated development of children with special needs aimed towards inclusive education, understanding the difference, the development of tolerance and compassion for children with typical development. To achieve the positive effects of coexistence, the positive attitudes of the environment, which, in addition to educators and parents of other children, represent children with typical development in the pre-school age. The views are generated based on experience, which makes it even more important to create positive experiences of coexistence in the preschool period, where the organization of preschool programs itself, makes it easier to transition and meet. Research, which would include examining the relationships of preschool children to children with special needs in the Slovenian area is almost nonexistent. Positive experiences can be formulated by professional workers based on understanding of special needs from the perspective of the preschool child. Therefore, in the master's thesis, the views of children with typical development of the children with physical impairment were studied from the point of view of all three components of attitudes - cognitive, emotional and behavioral. During the research we used a short-animated film, which presented socializing of a girl with typical development and a boy with a physical impairment. The film was the starting point for the oral questionnaire, which was answered by 57 children of both sexes aged 4 to 5 years in one public kindergarten in Slovenia. Children with varying experience regarding the frequency of meeting with peers with special needs were included. We divided them into a group of children who have a daily contact with children with special needs, a group of children with occasional contacts with children with special needs and to a group which does not encounter children with special needs within the kindergarten. We tried to determine whether the position of pre-school children to children with physical disabilities in the animated film, the interpretation and understanding of physical disability in general and the reasons for it and how they experience a child with a physical disability. Willingness to cooperate and aid children with physical disabilities vary depending on how much children in their everyday situations encounter their peers with different special needs. The results of the empirical research show that most children from all three groups understand that physical impairment is not a contagious disease and that they themselves will not become physically hindered, if they interact with a peer who has special needs. Children from all three groups also consider that motor impairment is a curable and not a lifelong condition. They think that the physically handicapped children will eventually walk and will be able to attain and develop other skills over the years. Children from all three groups statistically significantly differ only in attitudes towards the attributes of a child with physical impairment in the social, physical and cognitive field. We did not confirm whether in positions to capabilities of a physically disabled child in these three areas there are statistically significant differences. We also did not find statistically significant differences in attitudes towards the personality characteristics of the child with physical impairment. The most positively expressed emotional component of attitudes is that of children from the group which meet children with special needs only occasionally. Children from this group also show greater willingness to provide help and cooperation with a physically handicapped child than children from the other two groups. We also found that more than half of the children in all three groups are ready to provide help to a child with physical disability.

Keywords:backward child, nursery school, otrok s posebnimi potrebami, vrtec

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