The bog orchid group (O. palustris agg.) in Slovenia is neither well-known nor well-researched scientifically. Based on examinations of herbarium material at the University of Ljubljana (ULJ) two taxa are present – the loose-flowered orchid (O. laxiflora) and the bog orchid (O. palustris). Some authors have claim that there is a third species present in Slovenia, O. elegans. In our study, we analysed one hundred specimens from seventeen locations across Slovenia. Some measurments were performed in situ, while flower characteristics were analised in the lab with Image J software. Data was statistically analysed using PAST software (PAleontological STatistics). Some populations of bog orchids displayed individual variationso that some measurements were out of range for O. palustris. These plants were denoted as potential O. elegans, however it was kept in mind that deviations are probably due to intraspecific variation, meaning it would be a form of the same species rather than an independent taxon. As such, the presence of O.elegans was not confirmed. Based on the analysis of distinctive characteristics, an identification key was created to distinguish between the taxa of the bog orchids group. Our findings also show that the bog orchid and the loose-flowered orchid have distinct geographic ranges with no overlap. Bog orchids are primarly found in the central and south-eastern region of Slovenia while loose-flowered orchids can be found in the south-western part of the territory. Due to their growth on threatened swampy soils, it was important that their condition be evaluated. At the time of sampling, the state of these sites was of great concern. In most cases, populations are small (maximum 50 plants) but stable. However, with the misuse of these lands, the habitats and plants themselves are in great danger of dissapearing suddenly.