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Bralno razumevanje učencev z intelektualnimi primanjkljaji in uporaba sobesedila
Zupanc, Neja (Author), Lipec Stopar, Mojca (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/5168/ This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Osebe z intelektualnimi primanjkljaji se zaradi znižane splošne ravni inteligentnosti soočajo s pomanjkanjem veščin ter težavami na vseh področjih razvoja. V magistrskem delu se osredotočamo na bralno pismenost učencev z intelektualnimi primanjkljaji, vključenih v prilagojeni program devetletne osnovne šole z nižjim izobrazbenim standardom. V primerjavi z učenci značilnega razvoja poteka bralni razvoj učencev z intelektualnimi primanjkljaji počasneje, vendar pri tem sledi podobnemu vzorcu, napredek v bralnem razvoju pa je počasnejši in manj izrazit v primerjavi z napredkom učencev značilnega razvoja. V slovenskem prostoru je zaenkrat le malo domačih raziskav, ki bi proučevale pismenost učencev, ki obiskujejo prilagojen izobraževalni program devetletne osnovne šole z nižjim izobrazbenim standardom, ter dosežke teh učencev ob koncu osnovnega devetletnega šolanja. Slovenska raziskava pismenosti dijakov z intelektualnimi primanjkljaji kaže, da imajo dijaki pri razumevanju učbeniških gradiv velike težave predvsem zaradi slabšega razumevanja besedil, kar vpliva na uspeh pri vseh splošno izobraževalnih predmetih. Dijaki z intelektualnimi primanjkljaji so bolj uspešni pri slušnem razumevanju besedil kot pri razumevanju med samostojnim branjem. Omenjeno nakazuje, da dijake pri doseganju njihovega dejanskega potenciala razumevanja ovira slabša bralna tehnika. Ker pa so za samo bralno razumevanje pomembni tudi ostali dejavniki, kot so uporaba sobesedila, povezovanje prebranega s predhodnim znanjem ter zmožnost nadzorovanja lastnega razumevanja pri branju predvidevamo, da težava v dosežkih dijakov z intelektualnimi primanjkljaji ni le v fluentnosti branja, temveč tudi v samih strategijah, ki jih dijaki med branjem uporabljajo. Izsledke raziskav lahko posplošimo tudi na učence z intelektualnimi primanjkljaji. Ker učenci uporabljajo besedila za pridobivanje novih informacij med učenjem pri skoraj vseh učnih predmetih, je zelo pomembno, da imajo dobro razvite učne bralne strategije; v uporabi le-teh se najbolj razlikujejo uspešni in neuspešni bralci po tem, ko je bralna tehnika že usvojena. Namen magistrskega dela je na podlagi raziskave ugotoviti, kako uspešno učenci višjih razredov prilagojenega programa z nižjim izobrazbenim standardom samostojno in ob vodenem reševanju obvladujejo strategijo določanja neznane besede s pomočjo sobesedila. Hkrati nam raziskava ponudi vpogled v uspešnost in smiselnost eksplicitnega poučevanja omenjene strategije, na osnovi obstoječe literature pa lahko oblikujemo smernice in predloge za bralni pouk. V namene raziskovanja smo sami oblikovali instrument, v raziskavo je bilo vključenih 29 učencev iz osrednjeslovenske regije.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:branje
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Year:2018
COBISS.SI-ID:12060745 This link opens in a new window
Views:500
Downloads:111
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Reading comprehension in students with mild intellectual disabilities and the use of context
Abstract:
People with mild intellectual disabilities face lack of skills and difficulties on all areas of development due to lowered general intellectual abilities. In our master's thesis we focus on reading literacy of students with mild intellectual disabilities who attend the adaptive educational programme. Compared to students of typical development the reading development of students with mild intellectual disabilities is slower but follows a similar pattern. The reading progress is slower and less distinct compared to the reading progress of students of typical development. At the moment there are only a few studies in our area which investigate the literacy of students who attend the adaptive educational programme and their achievements at the end of the schooling programme. A Slovenian study on reading literacy of students with mild intellectual disabilities who attend vocational programmes reports that students have difficulties understanding textbook materials mostly because they lack text and word understanding. This affects the general success in all educational subjects. Students with mild intellectual disabilities are more successful at listening comprehension in comparison to reading on their own. All of the above mentioned suggests that poor reading technique is an obstacle students face while reaching their actual reading potential. But because other factors are important for reading comprehension, such as the use of context, integration of previous knowledge with what is being read and the capability of controlling one's reading comprehension, we can assume that the problem with students' achievements lies not only in the reading fluency but in the reading strategies themselves. The results of this research can be generalised on students with mild intellectual disabilities. Since students use texts for acquiring new information while studying for almost all educational subjects it is of great importance that they develop good reading strategies; the use of the strategies distincts the good and poor readers is after the reading technique has been acquired. This master's thesis purpose is to examine how successful the higher grade students who attend the adaptive educational programme are at using the strategy of deriving unknown word meaning from context independently and when guided. At the same time we will be given an insight into the success and meaning of explicit teaching of the above mentioned reading strategy. With the data and existing literature are able to form some guidelines and suggestions for the reading lessons. For the purpose of the study we ourselves formed a research instrument. The study includes 29 students from the central Slovenian region.

Keywords:reading

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