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Sprostitvene dejavnosti za otroke z lažjo motnjo v duševnem razvoju v času podaljšanega bivanja : magistrsko delo
Zelko Sitar, Sandra (Author), Žgur, Erna (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/id/eprint/5142 This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Sodobni čas zahteva tako od otrok kot odraslih, da se nenehno prilagajamo vsakodnevnim spremembam, zahtevam, izzivom, lastnim in tujim željam, pogosto pa pozabimo, kako se za trenutek ustaviti ter biti vsaj hip s samim seboj. Otroci so vedno bolj preobremenjeni in postavljeni pred veliko osebnih izzivov. V času podaljšanega bivanja je zaželeno, da so vsebine raznolike in otrokom zanimive. V praksi se je izkazalo, da so otroci željni tudi drugačnih vsebin sproščanja, igranja in izrabe prostega časa. Preko različnih dejavnosti, gibanja in ustvarjanja lahko pridemo tudi do usvajanja novih učnih vsebin. Glavni cilj magistrskega dela je bil preveriti in ugotoviti, ali vplivajo sprostitvene tehnike po pouku na počutje in razpoloženje ter posledično tudi na motivacijo za nadaljnje učno delo učencev. V teoretičnem delu smo se osredotočili na sprostitvene dejavnosti v času podaljšanega bivanja v Prilagojenem izobraževalnem programu devetletne osnovne šole z nižjim izobrazbenim standardom, kamor so vključeni učenci z lažjimi motnjami v duševnem razvoju. Predstavili smo značilnosti otrok z lažjimi motnjami v duševnem razvoju, izpostavili osnovne elemente podaljšanega bivanja ter opisali značilnosti sprostitvenih tehnik. Sprostitvene dejavnosti smo razdelili na tri sklope, in sicer 1. ustvarjalni gib, 2. joga in masaža za otroke ter 3. vaje čuječnosti. Sprostitvene dejavnosti so vsebovale različne vaje gibanja, plesne in sprostitvene igre (npr. konjeniki, ogledalo, improvizacija, vodenje, uporaba posameznih delov telesa, gibalne zgodbe ipd.), pantomimo, masažo s pomočjo zgodbic in vodenja (npr. vremenska masaža, seznanjanje s števili, pisanje zgodbic, uporaba učnih vsebin), izvajanje jogijskih položajev, prirejenih za otroke (npr. gora in velikan, drevo, mačka, metulj, lev), vaje čuječnosti (npr. vaje dihanja, mišično sproščanje, okušanje). V empiričnem delu smo predstavili multiplo študijo primera. V vzorec je bilo vključenih pet petošolcev z lažjimi motnjami v duševnem razvoju. Pripravili smo desettedenski trening sprostitvenih tehnik, ki je potekal v času podaljšanega bivanja trikrat tedensko. Na podlagi primerjave in analize inicialnih in finalnih odgovorov smo evalvirali učinkovitost treninga in poznavanje sprostitvenih tehnik pri učencih. Rezultati so pokazali, da je nabor različnih vaj v vsakem sklopu pozitivno vplival tako na razpoloženje učencev kot tudi na motivacijo za nadaljnje delo ter učinkovitost pri pisanju domačih nalog. Na vzorcu multiple študije primera pa izpostavljamo najbolj uspešen, učinkovit sklop, zaradi česar lahko sklepamo, da bi sprostitvene tehnike imele pozitivne učinke tudi na ostale učence. Na osnovi analize rezultatov smo podali primere različnih dejavnosti, ki so lahko strokovnim delavcem v pomoč ali kot popestritev pri pedagoškem delu.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:podaljšano bivanje, ustvarjalni gib, sprostitvene tehnike, joga, masaža za otroke, čuječnost, učenci z lažjimi motnjami v duševnem razvoju
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Year:2018
Publisher:[S. Zelko Sitar]
Number of pages:104 str.
UDC:376(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:12047433 This link opens in a new window
Views:596
Downloads:129
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Relaxing activities for children with mild intellectual disabilities in the after-school program
Abstract:
Modern times require that children as well as adults constantly adjust to daily changes, requirements, challenges, our own wishes and the wishes of others, but we often forget to stop for a moment and spend time just with ourselves at least for a moment. Children are increasingly overburdened and faced with many personal challenges. During after-school programmes, it is preferable for content to diverse and interesting for children. Practice has showed that children also wish to have different relaxation, playing, and free-time activities. Through various activities, movement, and creativity, new things can also be learnt. The main goal of this master's thesis is to verify and determine whether relaxation techniques after school affect the well-being, mood, and consequently the motivation of students to continue learning. The theoretical part of the paper focuses on relaxation activities during the after-school programme within the Adapted Educational Programme of the nine-year primary school with a lower educational standard, into which students with mild intellectual disabilities are included. The characteristics of children with mild intellectual disabilities have been presented, the basic elements of after-school programmes have been highlighted, and the features of relaxation techniques have been described. The relaxation techniques have been divided into three sections, namely 1) creative movement, 2) yoga and massage for children, and 3) mindfulness exercises. Relaxation activities contained various movement exercises, dance games and relaxation games (e.g. cavalrymen, mirror, improvisation, guidance, the use of individual body parts, movement stories, etc.), pantomime, massage with the help of stories and guidance (e.g. weather massage, learning numbers, writing stories, the use of educational topics), carrying out yoga positions adapted to children (e.g. mountain and giant, tree, cat, butterfly, lion), and mindfulness exercises (e.g. breathing exercises, muscle relaxing, and tasting). The empirical part of the paper presented a multiple case study. The sample included five fifth-graders with mild intellectual disabilities. A ten-week relaxation technique training was organised, which was held three times per week during the after-school programme. On the basis of comparing and analysing initial and final answers, we evaluated the effectiveness of the training and how familiar the students are with the relaxation techniques. The results showed that the set of various exercises in each section of the programme positively affected the mood of the students and their motivation for further work as well as the effectiveness with regard to doing homework. In the sample of the multiple case study, we highlight the most successful and most effective part of the programme, which allows us to conclude that relaxation techniques could have positive effects on other primary school students as well. On the basis of the result analysis, examples have been given of various activities, which could help teachers and experts or make educational work more dynamic.

Keywords:backward child, special education, otrok s posebnimi potrebami, pouk po prilagojenem programu

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