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Izvršilne funkcije pri učencih brez primanjkljajev in s primanjkljaji na posameznih področjih učenja : magistrsko delo
Javornik, Karmen (Author), Magajna, Lidija (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, Košak Babuder, Milena (Co-mentor)

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/5021/ This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Za uspešno delovanje v šoli učenci poleg vsebinskih znanj potrebujejo tudi znanja o tem, kako nekaj naredijo bolj učinkovito. Izvršilne (oz. eksekutivne) funkcije v povezavi z vzgojo in izobraževanjem se nanašajo to, kako učenci razmišljajo in kako se učijo. Težave na področju izvršilnih funkcij se lahko pojavljajo tako pri učencih s primanjkljaji na posameznih področjih učenja (v nadaljevanju PPPU), kot tudi pri učencih, pri katerih izrazitejše učne težave niso opažene. Zaradi povezanosti izvršilnega funkcioniranja z drugimi področji, ključnimi za šolsko delo, je prepoznavanje težav in delo na področju izvršilnih funkcij pomembno. Osrednji cilj magistrskega dela je bil ugotoviti, kakšno je stanje na področju izvršilnih funkcij pri učencih od 4. do 9. razreda osnovne šole ter kakšne so na tem področju razlike med učenci brez primanjkljajev in s primanjkljaji na posameznih področjih učenja. Podatki so bili pridobljeni s pomočjo anketnega vprašalnika o izvršilnih funkcijah v dveh različicah – za učence (»Vprašalnik o izvršilnih funkcijah za učence«; ang. Executive Skills Questionnaire for Students; Dawson in Guare, 2012, str. 176−177) in za učitelje (»Vprašalnik o izvršilnih funkcijah za učitelje«). Uporabili smo deskriptivno in kavzalno neeksperimentalno metodo raziskovanja ter kvantitativni raziskovalni pristop. Raziskovali smo na vzorcu učencev od 4. do 9. razreda (N = 344) ter podvzorcu (N = 20) glede na razred ekvivalentnih parov, pri čemer je vsak par sestavljal učenec s PPPU in njegov sošolec brez PPPU. Vsakega učenca v podvzorcu sta na področju izvršilnih funkcij ocenila tudi dva učitelja (N = 20). Rezultati raziskave kažejo, da se pri učencih izražajo določene težave na področju izvršilnih funkcij. Izrazite so razlike glede na starost in vzgojno-izobraževalno obdobje, pri čemer se mlajši učenci ocenjujejo višje kot starejši. Na nekaterih področjih izvršilnih funkcij je bila samoocena fantov statistično pomembno nižja kot samoocena deklet. Na večini področij izvršilnih funkcij so učenci z višjim učnim uspehom boljši. Učenci, ki obiskujejo ure dodatne strokovne pomoči, se na nekaterih področjih izvršilnih funkcij ocenjujejo nižje kot preostali, še nižje pa se ocenjujejo učenci, ki obiskujejo ure dopolnilnega pouka. Učenci, ki so bili prepoznani kot nadarjeni, se na področju metakognicije ocenjujejo statistično pomembno višje kot preostali učenci. Učenci s PPPU se izkazujejo kot nekoliko slabši na področju izvršilnega funkcioniranja, pri čemer so razlike statistično pomembne zgolj na nekaterih področjih. V primerjavi samoocene učenca z oceno učitelja o funkcioniranju istega učenca lahko vidimo, da se tako pri učencih s PPPU kot pri učencih brez PPPU ocene v večini področij ujemajo.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:izvršilne (eksekutivne) funkcije, učenci v osnovni šoli, učenci s primanjkljaji na posameznih področjih učenja, strategije za razvijanje izvršilnih funkcij
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Year:2018
Publisher:[K. Javornik]
Number of pages:XV, 128 str.
UDC:376(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:11957065 Link is opened in a new window
Note:Univerzitetna Prešernova nagrada / University Prešern Award 2018
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Downloads:163
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Executive functions in pupils without deficits and with deficits in individual learning areas
Abstract:
Besides having content knowledge to be successful at school, pupils also need to know how to do something more effectively. Executive functions linked to upbringing and education refer to the way pupils think and learn. The problems in executive functions can appear in both pupils with deficits in individual learning areas as well as in pupils, where distinctive learning deficits are not noticed. Due to the connection of executive functions with other fields, crucial for school work, the identification of problems and working in the field of executive functions is important. The main goal of this master’s thesis was to examine the current situation in the field of executive functions in pupils between the fourth and ninth year of primary school and to find the differences between pupils without deficits and with deficits in individual learning areas. The information was gathered using an inquiry regarding executive functions at two levels – for pupils (Executive Skills Questionnaire for Students; Dawson and Guare, 2012, p. 176−177) and for teachers (Executive Skills Questionnaire for Teachers). A descriptive and causal non-experimental method of research and quantitative research approach was used. The research was made using a sample of pupils between the fourth and ninth year (N = 344) and a subsample (N = 20) regarding ten equivalent pairs in the class, where each pair was composed of a pupil with deficits in individual learning areas and his classmate without deficits in individual learning areas. Each pupil in the subsample was evaluated in the field of executive functions by two teachers (N = 20) and the pupil himself. The results show that pupils have certain problems with executive functions. Significant differences are shown regarding age and educational period, where younger pupils self-evaluate themselves higher than older pupils. In some areas of executive functions, boys self-evaluated themselves significantly lower than girls. Pupils with higher academic success are better in most areas of executive functions. Pupils who attend classes of additional help self-evaluate themselves lower in some areas than other pupils. Pupils who attend remedial classes self-evaluate themselves even lower. Pupils who were recognised as “gifted” self-evaluate themselves statistically significantly higher than other pupils in the field of metacognition. Pupils with deficits in individual learning areas are shown a bit weaker in the areas of executive functioning, where the differences are statistically significant only in a few areas. When comparing the pupil’s self-evaluation with the teacher’s evaluation regarding the functioning of the pupil, we can see that in pupils with deficits in individual learning areas as well with pupils without deficits in individual learning areas the assessments match in most of the areas.

Keywords:primary school, pupil, osnovna šola, učenec

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