The diploma work discusses biodegradable waste, as they are the largest in terms of quantity of all municipal waste. The approach to such waste in terms of the material circuit is of utmost importance, as we return them back into use as a product in a relatively easy manner, through recycling, which is environmentally acceptable.
The first part of the diploma work encompasses legislative frameworks regarding the description of biodegradable waste, their processing and deposit. The second chapter places emphasis on additional legislation in connection with aerobic (composting) and anaerobic (fermentation) waste treatment and restrictions of such waste disposal on depot.
The second part of the diploma work thoroughly describes all types and quantities of biodegradable waste, the basic principles of biodegradation processes and two main processing technologies in this respect. At this point, the diploma work further focuses on the simplest form of aerobic degradation or composting, which is considered in detail within the description of process, processing technology and the final product. These chapters are the focus of the study, as they accurately show the process of
biodegradable waste to the final product (compost).
In the last part of the diploma work, a comparison of aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation products is made. This part reveals the content of harmful and beneficial substances in compost and residual sludge from purification plant. By means of analyses presented in this part of the survey, we confirmed that compost and residual sludge not only contain the largest amount of nutrients easily accessible to plants, but also the largest amount of heavy metals, which can be reduced by awareness-raising and better separation of waste so as to satisfy the statutory criteria that apply for the first class quality products.