Space debris is the collection of objects that were send in the space by the man but no longer serve its initial purpose. They have been accumulating in the space since 1957, when first satellite was launched. More specifically, space debris include defunct satellites and their defunct parts, rocket stages, other parts of the rockets, paint fragments, fuel residues, dust and auxiliary engines. In this category fall also other lost items and all other particles that were incurred as a result of explosions and decomposition of artificial objects and collisions with each other. Nowadays, we have already reached critical density of space debris in the universe; they are constantly colliding, causing the emergence of even more space debris. For the future space missions, it is important, that we know the area, where space debris are located, so that spacecraft can successfully avoid them. Otherwise they can seriously endanger the mission. In my graduation thesis I first present the problem of space debris, more specifically, their behaviour and problems related to their accumulation. Further, I describe methods of observation and data gathering, which are specifically problematic with small debris. I am also addressing other problems related to measurement. I conclude with the methods for removal, which are still in development phase. Some of them were already tested, but none of the methods has yet been realised. Therefore, the sole current solution for the reduction of space debris remains moderate and responsible use of space environment.